C. MARYS-J, k
' MOTOR VEHiCLE.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 21. 1913.
1,195,832., Patent-ed Aug, 22, 1916.
WITNESSES: IN VEN TOR.
6 12mm HAM/Z152.
M M v BY m A TTORNE Y.
CHARLES H. MARTIN, 0F WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed May 21, 1913. Serial No. 768,924.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CHARLES H. MARTIN, a citizen of. the United States, residing at Worcester, in the county of Worcester and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in M0- tor-Vehicles, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
\ This invention relates te the combination of a tractor and a trailer in motor vehicles, and more particularly, to the tractor itself and devices whereby the tractor may be conveniently applied to vehicles of any known description.
My invention, in some of its broad features, concerns vehicles of the type shown in my Patent No. 1,018,248, for an improvement in vehicles, granted February 20, 1913.
It has, broadly, the same purpose as the machine illustrated in that patent-namely, the provision of a tractor which takes the place of a horse and can be applied to any vehicle; but in the operation of a tractor of the type covered in my prior patent, although this'tractor may be applied at Wlll to-any vehicle, yet it is necessary in so applying it first to jack? off the running gear portion attached to the vehicle from the corresponding portion attached to the tractor before the tractor may be removed from the vehicle. In other words, when the old tractor is used with a large number of vehicles and the separation is made between the two portions of the running gear (which has been found to be the most practical and convenient arrangement), it is necessary to manipulate the vehicle body by means of Jacks or some other equivalent support whenever the tractor is removed therefrom, because as applied to vehicles in ordinary use the front wheels and front axle are removed from the vehicle, which is supported in front when being hauled upon the rear wheels of the tractor and when not being hauled upon jacks or other supports.
The principal and broad object of my invention is to provide in a tractor-trailer vehicle combination, a trailer with supporting and steering wheels, a steerable tractor for road or field use with a driving wheel or wheels at therear, and lifting and connecting means associated with said tractor and trailer operable when positioned to connect the trailer steering wheel for turning movement with the tractor relatively to the trailer and operable while the connected tractor and ratemea Aug. 22, rate.
trailer are stationary or moving to lift or lower said steering wheel from and to supporting contact with the ground, characterized in that the tractor may move the trailer forwardly or backwardly and turn in a narrow space and the weight on the driving wheel may at any time be increased and decreased as desired.
A more specific object of the invention is to provide a tractor with means thereon adapted to freely pass under and underlie the front axle of a trailer to be drawn-by the tractor and mechanism associated with said means to connect the latter with the front axle of the trailer for hauling relat1vely turning and backing operations.
Other objects of the invention are to pro yide new and improved means for connectlng a tractor and trailer for operation as will more particularly appear in the detailed description of the preferred embodiment of the invention and in the annexed claims.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a sideelevation of my tractor shown with a wagon attached and in its preferred form; Fig. 53 is a top plan view of F ig. 1; Fig. is a detail of the elevating means in section; and Fig. 4 is a modification of the form of the invention shown in Figs. 1 to 3.
A represents the tractor in general provided with a seat b, fore wheels 0, and a broad single tractor wheel 03, which may be suitably tired or provided with a steel tread, just as desired. Mounted upon the frame A of the tractor is a four-legged spider c which carries a casing fbolted thereto at g, as shown in Fig. 3. Slidably mounted in: the casing f is an internally-threaded sleeve 72- adapted to cooperate with an upright thread ed shaft 2' rigidly secured to the spider c by means of the bolt 2". The sleeve 0 car-- ries at its-solid upper end a mounting for the universal joint 7' and j, and secured upon the shank j thereof, as shown in Fig. 3, is the depending arm is having two downwardly-projecting portions k each provided with a backwardly-extending substantially horizontal extension 70 having an inclined face 70 and being provided upon its upper surface with a seat for the sliding blocks Z. The blocks Z are each provided, in turn, with a recess Z for the accommodation of the axle m of a vehicle and are supported in seats in members 70 by means of springs -4 The portion of the extensions 7& ad-
jacent the mid-portion of the seats in these members above alluded to are cut away, as
. shown at is (Fig. 1). Slidably mounted on the sleeve k in straddled relation to the device, by means of the handle 0 the operator may rotate sleeve h. To do this, he simply raises handle 0 until the cam-wing 0 takes into a space between the gear-teeth h and then turns sleeve h. The handle 0 may be disengaged from the gear-teeth at any time,
when it drops into the position in engagement with the lug p, as shown. Inasmuch" as the pitch of the screw dis small, a superimposed weight upon the sleeve his not sufficient to'rotate it and it will remain in any adjusted position, or ratchets may be pro-v vided for this purpose. The preferred operation is as follows 2 The horizontal members 10 are adjusted vertically so that the top surface thereof underlies the bottom surface of the trailer axle m. The tractor is then backed up to the trailer B so that the membars pass freely below and underlie the axle m. The latter ispreferably in vertical line with or in front of the slots Z. The operator now operates lever 0 to turn the sleeve h to raise the draw-bar members k until they engage the axle m. The lattermay be lifted so that the wheels leave the ground if desired, but this is not necessary. The tractor is then driven off and the axle m settles in slots Z when the members 70 are drawn forwardly if it has not already settled therein when grappling members k are raised. If desired the operation may be carried out in the following way: Assuming that the operator has adjusted sleeve h in the manner just outlined and therefore the grappling element 70 to the height required by the location of the fore axle of the vehicle which he contemplates drawing-the tractor is simply backed up to this vehicle (from which the tongue has, of course, been removed), the inclined faces k then of the extensions 10 take under the fore axle which slides along until it drops into the recesses l of the blocks Z,the slight necessary play for this purpose being accommodated by the sup porting springs of the wagons. The cam faces 70 as the tractor is backed under. the trailer allow the axle m of the latter to ride up the arms 70 and fall into the slots l of the bars k If one arm 70 strikes the axle 7h before the other, the turning of the axle m willbring it against the other arm 70?. The trac tor then backs under the axle m which must fall into the slots Z where itis supported and held when the tractor starts to pull. The tractor may'then be driven to whatever point desired, the wagon following behind, but in case by reason of slippery streets, mud, or a hill, or anyother reason, it is found desirable to increase the tractive force upon the propelling wheel 03 of the tractor, the operator by manipulating the handle a may raise the grappling element 16 bodily, thereby not only relieving the wheels t of the wagon of a portion or all of the weight 1 of the Wagon, but throwing this weight directly onto the propelling tractor wheel. This increase of the tractive force of the wheel may obviously be attained to any amount desired within the limits of the Weight upon the fore wheels of the trailer.
It is to be particularly noted that this increase in tractive force can be obtained when the tractor is moving or when it is stationary and just about to move. When the tractor is moving, if the structure renders an exceponly a small part, then the possible stalls are cut down to a minimum. Where the traction wheels areon a slippery road or an tionally large weight available rather than over and above this possibility and as an a advantage inherent in the modification shown in Fig. 1, it is obvious that the backward pullowing to the reluctance of the trailer tends to rotate member 1' in a clockwise direction. This impulse is communicated through the sleeve h, casing f and spider 6 directly to the tractor frame so that the result is a tendency to turn the tractor bodily upon its rear axle as a pivot and to swing the engine and the weight of the whole fore part of the tractor 03 the ground, this exceptionally large weight, of course, going also to the tractor wheel. In other words, by this arrangement the tractive force is automatically augmented by an amount proportionate to the weight of the trailing body, and the proportion may be varied at the will of the operator.
The arrangement shown in Fig. 4, although shown in less detail, is the preferred form and is similar to that shown in Figs. 1 to 3. The frame A of the tractor has upon opposite sides a pair of depending lugs 1' in which are pivotally mounted a pair of levers g, the rear ends of these levers being in all respects similar tothe extensions in de- "scribed above, but the fore ends being coni nected and underlying at a common point which handle 1) is operated in the other modification.
It is realized that many modifications of my invention can be made as soon'as it is clearly understood. I, therefore, particularly point out and distinctly claim the various combinations of the elements of the invention and their functions.
' fined in the Having now fully described my invention but well knowing that many departures an modifications may be'made thereof without departingfrom thereal scope of the invention, which is more truly bounded and declaim,
1. A tractor for trailer wagons, comprlsing, in combination, a frame having wheels and motor devices thereon to form an operable motor vehicle, means onthe tractor constructed and arranged so that the tractor may be readily connected and disconnected with the-front axle of a trailer wagon for hauling, relatively turning and backing operations with the trailer wagon, and mechanism to elevate said means operable when the tractor is stationary or moving.
2. A tractor for vehicles comprising, in combination, a frame, wheels and motor devices thereon, means for automatically engaging a trailer, and means for elevating said means, said elevating means being under the control of the operator from the seat of the tractor.
3. In combination an operable motor trac tor, a separately operable trailer wagon having a front steering wheel and axle, means on the tractor operable to be readily attached and detached with said front steering axle of the trailer wagon and mechanism on the tractor to operate said'means to lift the saidsteering axle, characterized in that the steering axle of the trailer may be conf nected at will to the tractor for turning movement therewith relatively to the trailer.
4. In a tractor having a rear wheel and in combination with a trailer, a support adjacent the rear wheel of the tractor, a vertically-movable member mounted on the support, an arm operable by said verticallymovable-member and adapted for automatic engagement with a trailer.
5. In an apparatus of theclass described including a tractor frame and a rearwardlyprojecting arm adapted to grapple the trailer and provided with a cam end whereby said arm automatically grapples the trailer when the tractor is backed thereto, and, means for vertically moving the arm.
6. In combination an operable motor tractor, a separately operable trailer wagon claims hereto appended, I
having a front steering wheel and axle, supporting and connecting means on the trac- Y supporting means whereby the pressure of y the tractor wheel upon the-ground may be increased and decreased at will while the tractor is stationary or moving.
7. In atractor and trailer combine, a tractor,
steering and traction wheels thereon, means pivoted adjacent the rear wheel and adapted to connect with an axle of the trailer when backed thereto, and mechanism on the tractor operable to move said meansto disconnect the tractor and trailer.
8. In a tractor and trailer combine, a tractor' having wheels thereon arranged to remain on the ground at all times, connecting means on said tractor adapted to reach under a steering axle of the trailer when the tractor is backed relatively thereto, together with means for elevating said means and thus connect the tractor with a trailer.
9. In a tractor and trailer combine, a rear vehicle including a front and a rear axle, a tractor, means on the tractor for engaging the front axle of the trailer when the tractor is backed relatively thereto and mechanism for. elevating said means whereby the front axle of the trailer is lifted.
10. A tractor, vertically movable means mounted thereon adapted to freely pass under and underlie an axle of a trailer to be drawn by the tractor, said means being constructed and arranged so that when raised into engagement with an axle it bears against portions thereof at each side of the center, and mechanism operable to raise and lower said means when the tractor is stationary or moving.
11. In combination a tractor having traction and steering wheels thereon, and a trailer having a fore and rear. axle with wheels thereon, means to connect the two for operation, comprising, a device on the tractor for readily attachable and detachable supporting engagement with an axle of the trailer, and mechanism under the control of th operator when the tractor is stationary or moving, to move said device whereby it may directly support a desired part of the trailer weight, said mechanism being constructed and arranged so that the weight so supported may be varied at will.
12. In combination, a tractor and trailer, a connecting draw bar member pivoted on the tractor and adapted to overlap an axle of the trailer, mechanism on the tractor, .operable at will, to swing said -member into engagement with said axle of the trailer to which it can connect and which it overlaps, and thus connect the two for operation.
13. In combination, a tractor and trailer,
a draw bar member on the tractor adapted to freely overlap an axle of the trailer, mechanism on the tractor, operable at will, to move said memberinto operable engage 'ment with said axle ofthe trailer which it overlaps, whereby the tractoris connected to the trailer for operation.
14. A tractor comprising in combination, a frame having wheels and motordevices mounted thereon, means mounted on the frame adaptedto freely pass under and underlie an axle of a trailer to be drawn by the tractor, mechanism on the tractor, constructed. to elevate said first mentioned means when the tractor is stationary or moving and through it to connect the tractor and trailer for operation.
15. The combination of a steerable tractor mounted on rear traction and front steering wheels adapted for short turns, a trailer with a front axle supporting the front end thereof and also adapted for short turns, lifting mechanism on the tractor constructed and arranged to be readily attached to and detached from said front axle whereby the tractor, connected or disconnected with thetrailer may operate forwardly or backwardly and turn in a narrow space. V
16. In combination, a tractor, a trailer, a cross member under the front end of the trailer and connected to the latter to turn for. operating said mechanism 'whereby so much as desired of the weight of the trailer may be thrown upon the tractor, all conwardly and turn in a narrow space.
18. A tractor-trailer vehicle combination,
comprisinga trailer having wh'eels at therear and a steering wheel or wheels connected. to the trailer by means swiveled at the front end thereof, a tractor having a driving wheel at the rear and a steering wheel or wheels at the front thereof, and lifting and connectin means associated with said tractor and trailer operable when positioned to connect said trailersteering wheel for turning movement with the tractor relatively to the trailer and operable while the connected tractor and trailer are stationary or moving to lift or lower said wheel from and to supporting contact with the ground characterized in that the tractor may move the trailer forwardly or backwardly and turn in a narrow space and the weight on the driving wheel may be increased and decreased as desired.
19. In combination an operable motor tractor, a separately operable trailer wagon having two axles with supporting wheels thereon, means on the tractor constructed and arranged for horizontalturning movement with respect to the tractor and adapted to be readily connected with the front axle of the trailer wagon for hauling, turning, and backing operations, said means adapted also to be readily disconnected from the axle and mechanism on the tractor to lift said means whereby the wheels of the axle engaged may be raised from the ground.
CHARLES H. MARTIN. Witnesses:
SEBASTIAN HINTQN, MINNIE A. HUNTER.