Signaling apparatus.



T- BRUGER. SIGNALING APPARATUS. APPLICATION r1120 r1513. 9. 1911. 1,196,429. I Patented Aug. 29,1916. Inventor 21113013011 BRUGER H15 HTTORHBY m'lfnesses UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. EHEODOR BRUGER, 01E FRANKFURT-ON-THE-MAIN, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR TO THE FIRM 63F HARTMANN 8c BRAUN A.-G., OF FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, GERMANY. SIGNALING APPARATUS. To all? whom it may concern: Be it known that I, Tnnonor. BRUGER, a citizen of the German Empire, and a resident of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Prussia, Germany, have invented certain new and useful improvements in Signaling Apparatus, which the following is a specification. This invention relates to signaling apparatus of the type adapted for use with monophase or polyphase electrical. currents, and has for its object an improved signaling apparatus of this character wherein means are provided for obtaining an exact, clear, continuous transmission, to long dis tance, of the position of the transmitter over the whole range of a complete circle or multiple thereof. To this end, the invention contemplates a signaling apparatus including a novel means of utilizing out-of-phasecurrents for transmitting signals to a distance, said means comprising the combination of a phaseregulating transmitter, with a novel construction of phase-indicator or receiver. Though susceptible of embodiment in different forms of construction, and different arrangements of circuits, certain preferable and practical embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which- Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the invention in its application to a poly- ;ohase net-work. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the manner in which the receiver operates. Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic plan view showing the structural characteristics connections of the transmitter shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 4: is a detail in perspective of novel receiver construction shown in Figs. 1 and at. Like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several. figures of the drawings. The means for carrying the invention into effect may assume various forms. However, as one form of illustration, particular reference is made to the diagram of Fig. 1 of the invention showing its application to a polyphase net Work. Diflerent of trans Specification of Letters Patent. Application filed February 9, 1911. mitters may be employed, but it will be understood that the transmitter must be able, by its adjustment, to continually vary the phase of the long distance current; and the receiver must be so arranged that, by the influence of a rotating field upon a monophase alternating field of equal frequency, the latter varies its position in accordance with its phase. Hence, for operating the phase regulator, as well as for generating the rotating field in the receiver, currents may be used which are taken from a polyphase net-work, as shown in Fig. 1. In this form of construction, the transmitter is designed as transformer with ring-shaped primary and secondary which are rotatable with relation to one another. Figs. 1 and 3 illustrate both the construction and the connections of the transmitter. Referring thereto, it will be observed that the primary coil P is wound on the inner iron ring and connected to the three wires of the threephase circuits 1, II, III at three points displaced with relation to one another through 120. The secondary coils s closed in itself, surrounds the outer iron ring and carries two conductors fixed at a and b and leading to the receiver. The whole secondary ring is rotatableconcentrically to the primary ring, and when turned the collecting points vary their position relatively to the fixed primary ring respectively, to the respective points where the current is supplied. As will be seen, the phase of the current collected at 61-19 depends on the position of these collecting points with relation to the fixed connecting points of the primary ring, and, consequently, by turning the said. secondary ring, the phase of the long distance current may be continuously varied with relation to one of the three primary cnrents. Obviously, besides the induction effect, there is also a turning effect between the fixed primary and movable secondary rings which varies with theposition of the two rings in relation to each other and depends on the connections of the current supplied. This torque might be inconvenient if for the adjustment of the movable-transer, only very feeble forces are available. ' area-see lit can, however, be rendered non-efiective by employing two systems of transformers for the transmitter instead of one only, the secondaries of the double system being coupled together while the primaries are already, the long distance current is taken ofi at the points a-b of the secondary coil 3 while at two points ab, corresponding with 0:b, a resistance is connected to the ring coil 8 turning in unison with 8 the value of this resistance being equal to that of the receiver coil 8 connected with a-b. By this arrangement is obtained the conditions of current perfectly equal in both systems p s and p 8 and these latter constitute in a certain sense an astatic system, for the adjustment of which inner electromagnetic forces need not be overcome. The receiver of the construction illustrated in Figs. 1 and 4 has a small electromagnet, shown in Fig. 4. The light body e of thin sheet iron or wire is connected with the axis of rotation and consists of a cylindrical or quadrangular tube with semicircular pole surfaces, which are bent vertically away to opposite sides of the axis of the magnet at the top and at the bottom thereof. The iron body is so magnetized by the fixed coil .9 that radially directed fields of force are produced in the pole surfaces. This receiver also includes two, crossed out-of-phase fields represented by coils f and 7, produced by the alternating current of the two mains. The manner in which this receiver operates is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 2. In this diagram T represents the retating field vector of the system, which, with nearly constant value, turns during a period through the circle a, b, 0, whereas 9 is the. field vector of the monoaxial moving coil, which, in a certain position, while varying its value and polarity, oscillates during a period. Obviously, the field vector g, or .moving coil, producing the field, corresponding to y, will adjust itself so that, at the moment inwhich g attains its positive or negative maximum value, this vector will coincide with the rotating field vector r. llf, therefore, on closing the long distance current, the moving coil of the receiver is in such a position that its alternating field oscillates in the direction ac and the vector 7* has the position 'o.?), and g at the same time attains its maximum at ow,-then 0-a will be turned in vthe direction 0b, for which, as regards time, the positive as well as the negative maximum of g coincides with r. Tf, however, the long distance current is out-of-phase, then 9 attains its maximum value. at a time difieren t from that which previously prevailed, and the position of r corresponding to this moment is displaced, with respect to 0 -6, through the phase angle p. Hence the vector g,-and the moving coil of the receiver, will simultaneously move through the angle q) with respect to the former direction 0-b and assume the new position of equilibrium, where I again the maximum values of g coincide with T. It is evident, therefore, that, in the arrangement of the receiver as described the phase of the long distance current clearly depends on the position of the transmitter, accordingly there is a direct definite relation between the latter and the position of the receiver needle which can be directly used for long distance transmission. The systems supplement one another to a circular surface and are in any position influenced by the whole of the lines of force of the field produced by f and f in such a manner that slight faults of symmetry of the latter do not affect the position of the pointer of the receiver. The phase displacement between the fixed coils f and f necessary for producing the rotating field, is obtained by connecting one of these coils by means of a star-connected resistance 0 to the star voltage of phase 1 of the three phase net-work. On the other hand, the normal voltage for the second coil is collected from the two other branches of the zero resistance; that is to say, between phases 2 and 3, at such a distance from zero that the second coil supplies a field of equal intensity to the first. It would, of. course, be possible to make the connection in the known man ner, wherein the fixed rotating field results from the cooperation of three=coils fed directly from the three-phase net-work. ll claim: 1. A. signaling system" of the character herein referred to and wherein three-phase current taken from a net-work is used, the same including in combination with a transmitter, a receiver having an inner rotary lines, and a receiver comprising two crossed In testimony whereof I have afiixed my out-of-phase fields and an electromagnet signature in presence of two witnesses. placed inside of said fields and consisting of a fixed coil, and a movable part having THEODOR BRUGER' a pointer and oppositely located pole ieces Witnesses: respectively projecting to opposite si es of JEAN GRUND, the magnet. CARL GRUND.



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    US-2650352-AAugust 25, 1953Edward G MartinVariable inductance for measuring motion