Automatic musical instrument.

Abstract

Claims

H. BOCKISCH. AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8, HHS. 6 SHEETS-SHEET I. Pa tented Sept. HRIS PETERS c0 Pnomurno" wasmmimm n. c H. BOGKISGH. AUTOMA'HG MUSICAL msmumm. n v APPLICATH JN FILED NOV 8,1915. 1,197,5Z'8 Patented Sept. 5,1916. 6 sum-sum 2 H. BOCKISCH, AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8. 19:5. 1 197.,5?3n PatentedSept. 5,1916. 6 SHEETS-SHEET 3. wnocmsca. AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8,1915. Patented Sept. 5,1916. 6 SHEETS-SHEET 4. H. BOCKISCH. AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8. 1915. PatentedSept. 5, 1916. 6 SHEETSSHEET 5 H. BGCKTSCH. AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8. 1915. 1,197,573. I PatentedSept.5,1916. 6. SHEETS-SHUT 6. UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE. ERIN- ron BOCKISGH, or PoUeHKEErsIE, NEW YORK, AssIeNon TQM. WELTE & soNs, or NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION on NEW YORK. AUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. Specification of Letters Patent. - Patented Sept. 5, 1916. Application filed November 8, 1915. Serial No. 60,391. To all whom it may concern a subject of the Emperor of Austria-Hungary, residing at Poughkeepsie, in the county of Dutchess and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Automatic Musical Instruments, of which the following is a specification. This invention has relation to record controlled musical instruments of the kind, generally, wherein the production of the tones is controlled by the opening and closing of a series of tone-ducts by aproperly prepared operating device or record, and particularly, to those automatic musical instrumentssuch as organs, orchestrions and the likewhose tone-emitting elements are formed to give forth musical tones when subjected to the influence of currents of a1r. The'invention is illustrated as being applied to a pipe organ operated automatically by means which include a perforated music roll or note sheet as the operating ele-. ment or record, but this is merely exemplary, the invention being applicable to other musical instruments than pipe organs and being adapted for use with other operating elements or records than a perforated music roll. More particularly the invention has reference to organs, orchestrions and other muslcal instruments of similar character in which there .is generally a very extensive scale or range of notc-emitting elements which are sounded in an infinite variety of combinations in the rendition of musical compositions. Citing a pipe organ as an example, the scale runs from very low notes in the pedal to high notes 111 a manuah'or 1n a-plurality of manuals. Inorder that musical compositions maybe correctly rendered,- itis necessary that theped'al scale may be played independently of the manual scale and that vwhen more than onemanual scale is employed,'they may be played independently of each other and of the pedal scale. This permits, for example, the playing of a chord on a very soft stopas violin, for instanceon the first manual, While at the same time a solo in a different tone color as oboeis being played on the second manual and a very deep soft note on a 16 foot bourdon is being played in the pedal. The provision of each manual and pedal scale with a separate series of tone-ducts would 7 necessitate a great number of such ducts and Be it known that I, HEINRICH BOCKISOH,- the operating element or record for opening and closing the ducts would have to be correspondingly wide, if it be a perforated note sheet, or long, if it be a cylinder with projections. The objections to the use of either a very Wide note sheet or of a long cylinder are apparent and need not be enlarged upon. One of the important purposes of the present invention, therefore is to provide an automatic musical instrument with mechanism whereby a plurality of toneemitting elements may be controlled from a common tone-duct, thereby reducing the size ofthe operating element or record which otherwise would be required, the said mechanism being of a selective nature such that either of the tone-emitting elements controlled from the common duct may be sounded alone or they may be sounded together, at will, the selective nature of the mechanism being further such that the tones of the two scales may be emitted in an infinite variety of combinations or, in other words, does not in any wise reduce the combinations which would be obtainable if each note-emitting element were'provided with a separate toneduct. In accordance with this stated purpose of the invention I have provided an automatic musical instrument which comprises, generically, two series of tone-emitting elements (one for manual scale or effects and the other for pedal scale or effects, for example) a series of tone-ducts common to the two series of tone-emitting elements, and a se lecting mechanism of a suitable nature arranged to bring any one or more of the ele- 'ments of one series of toneemitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other series of tone-emitting elements into communication with the corresponding toneducts independently of every other of the elements of both of said series. The invention also has other purposes having reference particularly to its embodiment in most practicable and advantageous form, and which will be fully apparent to those familiar with the embodiment thereof hereinafter set forth and skilled in the art to which it relates. I have selected for illustration herein a mostbeneficial application and the preferred embodiment of the invention, and while I may herein describe the same with particularity, yet I would have it understood that the invention may be otherwise and variously embodied and employed without departing from its spirit or the scope of the subjoined claims. In this particular embodiment of the invention I have considered the instrument as having two series of toneen'iitting elements, one of said series being for the manual scale or effects-for instancc-and the other for the pedal scale or eflectsfor examplebut it will be understood that additional scales may be employed. I have deemed it to be unnecessary to illustrate, or to refer more particularly hereinafter to such additional scales, as the principle of operation is precisely the same whether two scales or more than two scales are employed, and provision for the operation of the scales of tone-emitting elements additional to those hereinafter set forth may readily be supplied by those skilled in the art. For example, when mechanism of the kind hereinafter particularly set forth is employed for a plurality of manual scales in addition to a pedal scale, it will be neces sary only to duplicate the mechanism herein set forth for the one manual scale, this duplication including the addition of a control duct and a primary and secondary control pneumatic, and switch members and their associated parts for each additional scale. The operating characteristics of such additional manual or manuals will prefer ably be similar to those herein described with relation to the pedal, that is to say, the ways to the operating pneumatics of the additional manual or manuals will preferably be closed. I wish it to be understood that the invention contemplates the employment of any desired number of scales or series of toneemitting elements and that the reference either to two series of the latter or to a plurality of series, is intended to include two or more such series. In the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters of reference denote corresponding parts in the several views: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of a desirable form of a mechanism employed for selectively sounding manual and pedal tones of an organ, the parts being shown in the positions they occupy when the manual tones only are being sounded; Fig. 2 is a view partly diagrammatic of a part of the mechanism intended more particularly to show the preferred correlation of certain of the pneumatics in the actual embodiment of the invention, the referred to pneumatics being shown as arranged in a common chest, the valves being shown in the positions occupied when a. pedal tone is being sounded; Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view of one end of the chest with the valves in the posi tion they occupy when both manual and pedal tones are being sounded; Fig. 4 is a transverse section on the line -ill of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a transverse section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3; Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of parts of the wind chest and operating pneumatics connected therewith, the parts being shown )rincipally in transverse vertical. section; F 7 is a view of one end of the manual chest showing the same in horizontal section, and shows also operating pneumatics connected with the stop valves thereof, the line of section being indicated at 7-7 in Fig. 8; Fig. 8 is a longitudinal vertical section on the line 88 of Fig. 7 and additionally shows means, diagrammatically, whereby the stop valve operating pneumatics may be operated automatically; Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic representation of a modified form showing an organization of parts whereby there is a more intimate relationship or combination between the primary and subprimary tone pneumatics; Fig. 10 is a detail representation of a perforated note sheet and part of a tracker board, the note sheet having note perforations and control apertures so correlated that certain notes will be sounded in the manual scale only while other notes will be sounded in both the manual and pedal scales; Fig. 11 is a like view of the same parts showing a correlation of note perforations and control apertures such that certain notes will be sounded in the manual scale only and other notes in the pedal scale only; Fig. 12 also is a like View of the same parts but shows a correlation of note perforations and control apertures such that various effects are produced. A and B, Fig. 6, designate portions of the wind chest for the manual scale and pedal scale respectively. These portions are provided with chambers, marked a and Z) respectively, to which the tone-emitting elements C and D are connected. Organ pipes are a desirable form of such toneemitting elements and hence have been selected to cxcn'rplify this particular part of the invention. There are a series of toneemitting elements connected with each chamber a and I), each element giving forth different tones of like quality. While this is particularly shown, in Figs. 7 and 8, with reference to the portion A only, yet it will be understood that the two portions A and B are or may be of substantially similar construction and for this reason it is considered to be sufiicient only to illustrate one portion in detail. When, as in an organ, orchestrion, or the like, it is desired to embody in the instrument a plurality or series of toneproducing elements, giving forth different qualities of tone of the same note, it is preferred, as is usual in organs, to provide each portion A and B of thewind chest with a plurality of chambers correspending in number with the number of the qualities of tone which are to be produced. To exemplify this, the portion A of the wind chest appropriated to the manual notes or effects is shown as having two chambers, a and a in addition to the chamber a,'and each of said chambers, in practice, has connection with a series of toneemitting elements (0 and G which are preferably so formed and arranged that those which emit different qualities of tone ofthe same note will be in the same transverse line with each other but connected to the different chambers, as shown. Similarly, the portion B of the wind chest appropriated to the pedal notes or effects is, for the sake of example, illustrated as having two chambers, b and 6, provided with two lines of tone-emitting elements (D and D) of different qualities of tone. The same lineal arrangement of the elements giving forth different qualities of tones of the same notes, explained with reference to the portion A, is illustrated with respect to the portion B. The connection between each chamber and the tone-emitting elements associated therewith includes a valve of any suitable style for each tone-emitting element. Each valve is marked 10 in the accompanying drawings. These valves open and close passages 11 between the chambers and the respective toneemitting elements. The valves of the elements emitting different qualities of tone of the same noteare connected with each other, preferably by rods, 12, as shown, having springs, 13, for closing the valves. A mechanism hereinafter described is provided for opening the valves against the action of these springs. The chambers a, a, of, Z2, Z) are connected with a suitable source of supply of air under pressure and have valves, 14, suitably operated to admit the air to the respective chambers. In the ordinary humanly played organ, these valves 14: are connected with the stops of'the organ. In the present instance, they are operated automatically, but the particular means for this purpose forms no essential part of the present invention. In Figs. 7 and 8 I have exemplified a suitable arrangement, wherein the wind chest has' a pressure chamber 15 which is tapped by openings 16 leading to the respective chambers, a, a and a It will be understood that a similar arrangement obtains with respect to the chambers 19 and Z). These openings are controlled by the valves, 14, respectively, which are connected by rods 17 to the movable spring-pressed boards 18 of the bellows 18 which respectively are provided with ducts 19 having connection through a suitable pneumatic 19 and ducts 19 with special apertures 19 in a tracl'rer-board E, when a tracker-board is employed. In this exemplified form of the invention the pneumatic 19 is provided also with a suction duct 19 The several tone-ducts are designated 20. These ducts have connection with the valves 10 through intervening mechanism which forms the essence of the present invention. Their mouths preferably are arranged in the tracker-board E. For opening and closing the ducts 19 and 20 I prefer to use a perforated music roll, as shown at E. In this invention, certain of the tone-ducts 20 are common to valves 10 of both portions a and b of the wind chest. For example, if the manual chest A has a scale of sixty-one (61) notes and the pedal chest B has a scale of thirty (80) notes additional to those of the manual chest, the ducts 20 for the lower thirty (30) notes of the manual scale will be employed for the pedal scale also, the remaining thirty-one (31) notes of the manual scale having a separate duct for each such note. As this invention is concerned only with the notes having ducts common to a plurality of scales, it is considered to be unnecessary to illustrate or to further refer to provision for causing the sounding of the additional notes which may be embodied in said manual scale. The use of the same tone-duct for controlling manual and pedal notes for example, reduces the number of ducts which otherwise would be required and accordingly reduces the length of the tracker-board and the width of the music roll. As already stated, the invention contemplates additionally a selecting mechanism of such nature that from the same hole or tone duct the tone may be sounded in the manual alone, or in the pedal alone, or in both together, at will, the mechanism further being so arranged that any note of the pedal scale may be sounded simultaneously with any note of the manual scale, so that the manual and pedal notes may be sounded in any of the infinite variety of combinations thereof required by musical compositions. Referring now particularly to Fig. 1: G designates a primary tone-pneumatic, as it is hereinafter called. This pneumatic is here shown as comprising a passage 23 on one side of which is a chamber 24 separated from the passage by a flexible membrane 25, and on the other side of which passage there is a chamber 26 having ports 27 and 28 through which it has communication alternately with sources of supply of air of relatively different pressuresas atmospheric or normal and suctional or subnormal, for example. In the chamber 26 there is mounted a valve 29 on a stem 30, the said valve being arranged to open and close the ports 27 and 28 alternately, by movement of the membrane 25 to which its stem 30 is connected. The chamber 24 has communication with the passage 23 through a bleed-hole 31. One of the tone-ducts 2O enters this chamber 2 1. This pneumatic is operated by variations in the difference in pressures of air in the passage 23 and chamber 21 acting upon the iuemln-ane This variation of pressure is controlled by the opening and closing of the ducts 20, which, as already stated, may conveniently be effected by the utiliza tion of a properly prepared music roll E traveling over a tracker-board E. It is preferred to utilize in the passage 23 air at less than atmospheric pressure. For maintaining less than atmospheric pressure in the passage 23 I preferably connect this passage by a pipe 32 with a reservoir H in which a substantially constant suction is maintained by a suitable bellows or pump, not shown. In such case, the port 28 of chamber 26 preferably opens into the atmosphere. r tssociated with the primary tone-pneumatic G in this particular embodiment of the invention is what I call a subprimary tone-pneumatic G which com prises a chamber 3;) connected with chamber 26 of the primary pneumatic G by a duct 34-. The chamber 33 has a membrane 36 to which is connected the stem 37 of a valve 38. The valve 38 is mounted in a chamber 39 and is arranged to alternately open and close ports +10 and 11 which respectively. connect the chamber 39 with the chamber 35 and a passage 12. The chamber 35 opens to the atmosphere, as indicated, and the passage l2 has communiction through a duct 13 with the constant suction reservoir H. In practice there is preferably a primary trme-pnemnatic G- for each tone of the longer scale-the manual scale, for exampleand a separate sub-primary tone-pneumatic G for each tone of the shorter scalethe pedal scale :for example. lVhen the primary and i'aib-primary pneumatic. are separated from each other, the primary pneumatics are (see Fig. 2) preferably mounted in a common chest (it which also contains primary control pneumatics L, L hereinafter described, in which case the passage 23 will be common to the several chambers 24 and 26 of the primary tone pneumatics and also to chambers S9 and S5 of the pneumatics L, L and said passage 23 will have a single duct 32 leading to the suction reservoir II. The sub-prhnary pneumatics G will preferably be arranged in a separate chest K which also contains pneumatic switches, hereinafter described, as shown in Fig. 2. The chambers 35) of the sub-priimiry tone pneumatics G have connection with operating pneumatics J and J associated with the manual wind chest and pedal wind chest respectively. These operating pneumatics preferably include expansible and collapsible members, as bellows, H and 45, having connection with the valve rods 12 of the manual chest A and pedal chest B respectively, and also include valved means for controlling the supply of air or other suit able fluid to and its withdrawal from said members. The valved means of the operating pneumatics J and J may be of identical construction and each preferably comprises a. suction passage 46 having a port 47 through which it may have communication with a chamber 48, said chamber 18 having a port 49 leading to the bellows and also having a port 50 opening into an atmospheric passage 51 on one side 01 which there is a flexible membrane 52 separating the passage 51 from a chamber 53. In the chamber 48 there is a valve 5 1 having a stem 55 by which it is connected to the membrane 52. It will be understood that in practice there is one operating pneumatic J for each note of the manual scale and a separate pneumatic J for each note of the pedal scale, and that the series of pneumatics J and the series of pneumatics J respectively, are preferably arranged in the form of chests having the several chambers atS and 53, valves 5% and membranes 52 and provided with common passages 4L6 and 51. The operating bellows 141 and 4.5 are connected with their respective rods 12 preferably by bell crank levers 56 and links 57. In this exemplified form of the invention, the passages 46 of the respective operating pneumatics are under suction, being connected with the suction reservoir II by ducts 58. In the arrangement herein shown the placing of either chamber 53 under suction 3a uses the valve 5% connected with the membrane 52 of said chamber to be moved into position wherein it opens port 17 and closes port 50 whereupon the particular bellows connect-ed with said chamber will be collapsed, causing the sounding of the particular note-emitting element whose valve 10 is connected with said bellows: and, similarly, the placing of any chamber 53 under atmospheric pressure will cause the membrane 52 of said chamber to be moved so as thereby to move the valve connected to said membrane into position wherein it opens chamber 48 to atmospheric chamber 51 and cuts off its communication with the suction chamber 46, whereupon the particular bellows connected with said chamber 48 will be eX- panded and the valve 10 returned to its closed position, the closing of said valve being assisted by the spring 13 connected with the rod 12. Included in the suction line between the pneumatics G, G and the pneumatics J, J are suitable members K and K for manual effects and pedal effects respectively and which combine to form what is hereinafter called pneumatic switch. The switch members K, K in the particular embodiment selected to exemplify a most practicable form of the invention, include two pairs of connected valves 59 and 60 having operating membranes 69 and 76,70 and 77 and associated with chambers for air of different pressures, presently described, so cordinated or combined and connected with the pneumatics J and J that the latter will be operated in accordance with the positions of the valves of the pneumatic switch, which valves, in turn, are selectively controlled, pneumatically, preferably by the means hereinafter set forth. Upon reference to Fig. 2 it will be seen that the several pneumatic switches are embodied in a chest K each switch having for, or as a part of, each pair of members K, K, a common suction chamber 61, a common atmospheric chamber 62, ports 63 and 64 through which the suction chamber and atmospheric chamber have communication with each other, a pair of chambers 65 and 66 arranged on one side of the atmospheric chamber 62, a pair of chambers 67 and 68 arranged on the side of the suction chamber 61 opposite the atmospheric chamber and separated from said suction chamber by flexible membranes 69 and 70, channels 71 and 72 (shown best in Fig. 1) which connect chamber 65 with chamber 67 and chamber 66 with chamber 68, respectively, the said passages respectively having openings 71' and 72 into the ports 63 and 64. The chest further has for each pair of switch members K, K a pair of chambers 73 and 74, and wind passages 75 and 75 (see Figs. 4 and 5) one of which wind passages is common to all the manual members K and the other common to all the pedal members K, the chambers 73 and 74 of the latter having openings 7 3 and 74 to these passages. The chambers 73 and 74 are separated from the chambers 65' and 66 by flexible membranes 76 and 77. The valves 59 are mounted in the chamber 61 and the valves 60 are mounted in the chamber 62. The valves 59 and 60 of each manual switch member K are mounted on a common stem 7 8 whose opposite ends are connected to the corresponding membranes 69 and 76 and the like valves 59 and 60 of each pedal switch member K similarly are mounted on a common stem 79 whose opposite ends are connected to the corresponding membranes and 7 7 The chambers 61 of the pneumatic switches are connected with the sub-primary pneumatics G. It is preferred, as shown in Fig. 2, to incorporate these sub-primary pneumatics in the chest K and to connect their chambers 39 with the chambers 61 by ducts S0. The passages 71 and 72 of the pneumatic switches are cbnnected with the chambers 53 of the operating pneumatics J and J respectively by ducts 81. It will be understood that in practice there is one switch member K for each note of the manual scale and one switch member K for each note of the pedal scale and that they control the operation of the respective operating pneumatics J and J by placing the chambers 53 of the latter in communication with air at atmospheric pressure or at less than atmospheric pressure as required, as will be hereinafter more fully explained. They are in turn controlled through the agency of a mechanism which includes primary control pneumatics L and L for the manual and pedal scales respectively. There need be only one of each of said pneumatics L and L in the form of the invention herein illustrated and they are preferably operated by special apertures in the perforated music roll E when such a roll is employed as the operating element for the mechanism. Each may be and preferably is of form substantially similar to the primary tone pneutatics G- and are preferably arranged in the chest G which contains said tone pneumatics, as herein shown. Each has a suction chamber which in the exemplified form of the invention is a part of the suction passage 23 and hence is marked 23 in Figs. 1 and 2. Each control pneumatic L, L has at one side of the passage 23 a flexible membrane 83 and at the other side of said passage a port 84 leading to a chamber 85 having a port 86 to the atmosphere. In the chamber 85 there is a valve 87 having a stem 88 connected to the membrane 83. The membrane 83 separates the suction passage 23 from chamber 89 and a bleed hole 90 is provided through which the chamber 89 has communication with the passage 23. The chambers 89 are provided with ducts 91 and 92 respectively whose mouths are preferably in the tracker-board E,in the form of special apertures in said board, so that they may be opened by special apertures provided in the perforated music roll when the latter is employed as the operating device for the mechanism. The diagrammatic representation shows branch pipes 93 and 94 leading from the passage 23 and tapping the ducts 32 and 43 respectively, but it will be understood that in practice these pipes need not be used when the control pneumatics are incorporated in the chest G These primary control pneumatics L and L respectively have connection with the switch members K and K through intermediate secondary control pneumatics M and M, of which secondary control pneumatics there need be only one for the entire manual scale and one (M) for the entire pedal scale. In the here-' ondary control pneumatic also includes a chamber 98 and an atmospheric passage 99, the chamber 98 having ports 100 and 101 between it and the chamber 95 and atmospheric passage, 99, respectively. In each chamber 98 there is a valve 102 for closing its ports 100 and 101, alternately. The valves 102 are mounted on stems 103. In, the herein exemplified form of the invention the mechanism is so arranged that the tcnes oi the manual scale are sounded when both of the special control ducts 91 and 92 are closed, and hence the manual control pneumatic M is provided with a chamber 104 which has a flexible membrane 105 separating it from the passage 99. The chamber 101 has communication with the chamber 85 of the primary control pneumatic L through a duct 100. The membrane 105 is connected to the stem 103 of the valve 102 of the pneumatic M and the chamber 98 of said pneumatic is connected, preferably by a duct 107, with the wind passage of the pneumatic switch chest K The secondary pedal control pneumatic, M, has its atmospheric passage 99 separated from a chamber 108 by a partition 109 and the chamber 108 has communication with the chamber of the primary control pneumatic L through a duct 110. Chamber 108 is separated from a chamber 112 by a flexible membrane 113. The membrane 113 is connected to the stem 103 of the valve 102 of this pneumatic M. Chamber 112 has connection with chamber through a passage 111 and chamber 98 has connection with the wind passage 75 of the pneumatic switch chest K through a duct 115. In the herein illustrated embodiment of the invention the parts are so arranged that the manual tones are not sounded when the special duct 91 is open to the atmosphere: while the pedal tones are sounded only when the special duct 92 is open to the atmosphere. Accordingly, it will be apparent that when both ducts 91 and 92 are open to the atmosphere, the pedal tones connected to the open tone-apertures 20 will be sounded, and when both said special ducts 91 and 92 are closed the manual tones connected to the open toneapertures 20 will be sounded, and when the special duct 92 is open and the special duct 91 is closed, both pedal tones and manual tones connected to an open tone duct or ducts 20 will be sounded. It will thus be seen that according to this arrangement themanual tones are normally operative and the pedal tones normally silent. More particularly set forth the operation is as follows :In Fig. 1 theparts are shown in the positions they occupy when both special control ducts 91 and 92 are closed and a tone-duct 20 is open. It will be noted that the valves 87 of both the primary control pneumatics L, L are in such position that the chambers 85 of the latter are closed against the suction passage 23 and open to the atmosphere: the valve 102 of the secondary manual control pneumatic M is in such position that the chamber 98 is open to the atmosphere and closed against the suction chamber 95 whereby the wind passage 7 5 of the chest K, common to all the manual switch members K, is open to the atmosphere through the channel 99, port 101, chamber 98, and duct 107 of pneumatic M, the valves 59 and 60 of the several members K at this time being so positioned that the ports 63 will be open to the chambers 61. Thus the ports 63, openings 71, passages 71 and ducts 81 between the chambers 61 of the pneumatic switches and the several operating pneumatics J are open. The valve 102 of the secondary control pneumatic M, however, is closed against the atmosphere and open to the suction chamber 95 when the valve of the primary operating pneumatic is in the position shown in Fig. 1. Consequently, the wind passage 75 of the chest K common to all the pedal switch members K is under suction and the several valves 59 and 60 of the latter accordingly are in such positions that the ports 61 are closed against the chambers 61 and open to the atmosphere. Hence, the chambers 53 of the pedal operating pneumatics J have communication with the atmosphere through channels 62, ports 01, openings 72, channels 72 and ducts 81. It will now be seen that when any of the tone ducts 20 are opened, and the chambers 21 ot' the respec tive primary tone pneumatics G connected therewith are thus opened to the atmosphere, causing the membranes of such pneumatics to be moved, the valves 29 connected with such membranes will be operated to open the chambers 26 of the primary tone pneumatics to the suction passage 23 and to close said chambers against communication with the atmosphere. The chambers 26 being respectively connected with chambers 33 of sub-primary pneumatics G, the latter cha1nbers will be under suction whereupon the valves 38 will be moved to cut ell communication of chambers 39 with the atmosphere and open communication of said chambers 39 With the suction passage 42. The particular chamber or chambers 01 connected with the sub-primary pneumatics G whose valves are in the position shown in Fig. 1, will now be under suction from the latter pneumatics and this suctional force will be communicated through the ports and passages already indicatcd to the respective chambers 53 of the operating pneumatics J whereupon the valves 54: of the latter will be moved to cut oil communication of chambers 18 with the atmosphere and open com munication between said chambers 48 and the suction passage 16, thereby collapsing the corresponding bellows 44:. Meanwhile, the suctional force in the several chambers 61 which have been thus subjected to such force is not communicated to the chambers 53 of the pedal operating pneumatics J be cause the ways between said chambers are closed by the valves 59 of the pedal switch members K and the ways between the chambers 53 and the atmosphere are opened by the valves 60. Hence manual tones only are sounded when both ducts 91 and 92 are closed, as shown in Fig. 1. When, however, both ducts are open, the manual operating bellows will be unaffected by the opening of any tone-duct and the pedal operating bellows will be collapsed by the opening of their respective tone ducts. Thus when both control ducts 91 and 92 are open, the valves 87 of the primary control pneumatics L and L will be in such position that the chambers 85 of both said pneumatics will be opened to the suction passage 23 and closed against the atmosphere. The suctional force communicated to chamber 104 of secondary manual control pneumatic M will cause the membrane 105 of said pneumatic to move the valve 102 to such position that it closes the chamber 98 against the atmosphere and opens it to the suction chamber 95: while the suctional force communicated to chamber 108 of secondary pedal control pneumatic M brings about a balancing of such forces on the membrane 113, whereupon the valve 102 of this pneumatic will move by gravity to the position in which it opens its chamber 98 to the atmosphere and closes it against the suction chamber 95. The wind passage 75 common to the several switch members K is now under suction while wind passage 7 5 common to the several switch members K now contains air at atmospheric pressure, the result being that the several valves 59 and 60 of the pneumatic switches will be in such position that the ports 64 will be open to the chain'- bers 61 and closed against the passage 62 while the ports 63 will be closed to the chambers 61 and open to the passage 62. It will now be seen that the suctional force communicated to any of the chambers 61 by the raising of appropriate valves 38 will have access to the corresponding chambers 53 of pedal operating pneumatics J, whereupon the valves 54 of the latter pneumatics will be raised and the chambers 48 opened to suction passage 16, thus causing the collapsing of the appropriate pedal operating bellOWs 45. It will be remembered that the manual tones are emitted when the control duct 91 is closed and passage 75 of chest K open to the atmosphere, and it will be apparent therefore that if it is desired to cause the emission of both manual and pedal tones it will be necessary only to open the way to the pedal operating pneumatics J without closing the way to the manual operated pneumatlcs J. That is to say, it will be necessary only to open one of the special control ducts, to wit, the duct 92. WVhen this has been done, the chamber 89 of the pedal control pneumatic L will be opened to the atmosphere, whereupon the valve 87 of the latter will be moved to open communication of chamber 85 with suction passage 23. Chamber 108 of the"secondary control pneumatic M will now be under suction whereupon the valve 102 of the latter pneumatic will move and open chamber 98 to the atmosphere and close said chamber against the suction chamber 95. This places wind passage 75 in communication with the atmosphere, with the results hereinbefore stated. It will be seen from the foregoing that the valves 59 and 60 of the pedal switch members K are normally in such position that the passages from the tone pneumatics G, G to the respective pedal operating pneumatics J are closed by the valve 59 and the pedal operating pneumatics are in communication with the atmosphere entering through passage 62. The correlation of parts, however, as to the manual organ, is such that the passages from the tone pneumatics G, G to the respective manual operating pneumatics J are normally open, the valves 59 being away from the ports 63 and the valves 60 closing said ports to the entrance of atmospheric air through the passage 62. The control duct 91, accordingly, is never open alone and is opened in conjunction with duct 92 when it is desired that the tones of the pedal organ only shall speak, as hereinbefore stated. It will also be seen that when the control duct 92 is opened the valves of all the pedal switch members K will be shifted from the position shown in Fig. 1 to the position shown in Fig. 2, thereby opening the passages from the tone pneumatics G, G to the pedal operating pneumatics J and cutting off the entrance of atmospheric air from the passage 62, and that if the duct 91 be opened at the same time all of the valves of the switch members K will be shifted from the position shown in Fig. 1 to the position shown in Fig. 2. If, however, the control duct 91 be not opened when control duct 92 is opened then the valves of the switch members K will remain in the position shown in Fig. 1, and the valves of all the switch members K will be in the position shown in Fig. 2. Hence, the passages to the several manual and pedal operating pneumatics J, J will be opened. The last named position of the valves is shown in Fig. 3. It will be remembered that when the passages to the manual operating pneumatics J are open the passage 75 of the pneumatic switch chest K is in communication with the atmosphere through the secondary control pneumatic M and is under suction when the passages to the manual operating pneumatics J are closed: and that when the pas sages to the pedal operating pneumatics J are open, the passages 75, associated with the pedal switch members K are open to the atmosphere through the secondary pedal control pneumatic M, and said passage 75 is under suction when the passages to the pedal operating pneumatics J are closed. Accordingly, it will be noted that the application of suctional force to any one of the chambers 61 incident to the opening of the corresponding tone duct tends to maintain the valves in their adjusted position due to the correlation of membranes and passages in the pneumatic switches. Thus, with only the passages to the manual operating pneumatics J open and the passages to the pedal operating pneumatics J closed, the application of suetional force to any one of the chambers (51 will be communicated to corresponding chambers 67 and (35, whereby there is a balancing of forces on opposite sides of the corresponding membrane 69 and suctional force on the underside and atmospheric pressure on the upper side of the corresponding membrane 76, in consequence of which the valves 59 and 60 of the manual switch members K are held down; the ap plication of suctional force to chamber 61 at the same time pulling up on the membrane 70, the underside of which membrane is subjected to atmospheric pressure entering through the port (54 into chamber 68 and at the same time the underside of the membrane 77 is subjected to atmospheric pressure and its upper side to suction, in consequence of which the valves 59 and 60 of the pedal switch member K are held up. hen the position of the valves is reversed, 2'. 6., when the passages to the pedal operating pneumatics J are open and the passages to the manual operating pneumatics J are closed, the pressures described with relation to the membranes of the manual switch members K are now those of the pedal switch members K while the pressures previously described with relation to the pedal switch members K are now those having relation to the manual switch members K, and hence the valves are maintained in their proper adjusted positions. \Vhen the passages to the pedal and manual operating pneumatics are open the application of suctional force to any of the chambers 61 incident to the opening of the tone ducts obviously will maintain the valves of the corresponding switch members K, K in their proper adjusted positions because the suctional force will be communicated to the underside of all of the upper and lower membranes of said members, the upper sides of all of said upper membranes being at the same time under atmospheric pressure and the upper sides of all said lower membranes being under suction. Thus there can be no movement of the valves, either accidentally or otherwise, in any one of the chambers 61 while said chamber is under suction and hence the opening or closing of control ducts has no effect on tones which at the moment of such opening and closing are being sounded. The opening or closing of the control ducts, however, does effect the adjustment of valves in chambers which are not under suction when said control ducts have been opened or closed. Hence, by the use of a properly prepared operating element it is practicable to sound any note or notes of the pedal scale with any note or notes of the manual scale, without affecting other notes already being played and, similarly, other notes of either pedal or manual scales may be introduced. For example, as exemplified by Figs. 10, 11 and 12, when a perforated music roll is utilized as the operating element, the special perforations 91 92 which control the ducts 91 and 92 respectively may be arranged to act only in relation to those tones which are controlled by note perforations 2O whose forward ends are substantially in line with the rear ends of the control apertures: that is to say, only those corresponding tones controlled by the perforations 20 are sounded simultaneously in both the pedal and manual scales, when the control duct 92 is open and the control duct 91 is closed, as exemplified in Figs. 10 and 12, the tones controlled by the other note perforations, 20 whether the latter be already in registration with respective tone ducts 20 or later come into registration with ducts while the perforation 20 is in registration with a duct 20, sounding only in the manual scale; and similarly (as exemplified by Figs. 11 and 12) only those corresponding tones controlled by perforations 20- are sounded in the pedal scale alone when both control duct-s 91 and 92 are open, the tones controlled by the note perforations 20" sounding only in the manual scale. It will be noted that the production of various effects are exemplified by Fig. 12, namely, the lowest right hand perforation 20", causes the sounding of a note in the manual alone and just before this is discontinued a chord consisting of six notes in the manual is introduced with two supporting notes in the pedal, the pedal notes corresponding with two of the notes sounding in the manual; this is followed by the discontinuance of five notes of the chord sounding in the manual and one of the corresponding notes of the pedal, the remaining note continuing to sound in both manual and pedal, unaffected by the opening of the two control ducts 91, 92, the opening of said control ducts similarly having no effect with respect to the two notes which are caused to sound by the registration of the two note perforations 20 in the second line with their respective tone ducts, these two notes hence sounding in the manual alone while the one long note is continuing to sound in both pedal and manual; this in turn is followed by the discontinuance of the long note referred to in both {pedal and manual and the introduction at or about the same time of a note in the pedal alonecontrolled by said opening of the two ducts 91, 92-while the two notes previously referred to, related to the second line of note perforations are being sounded in the manual alone; this is succeeded by the discontinuance of the manual notes corresponding to the second line of perforations and the introduction of other manual notes alone, corresponding to the third line of perforations, immediately before the sounding of the pedal note corresponding to the second line of note perforations ceases, and While these notes of the manual alone are still sounding an additional note is introduced which sounds in both the pedal and manual and while the latter is sounding another note in the manual only is introduced. ' It will be understood of course that the length of the special control apertures should be such proportional to the speed of travel of the music roll and the inertia of the pneumatic switches and control valves that these valves will promptly return to their normal positions, as hereinbefore set forth, except such as are associated with particular chambers 61 under suction. It will therefore be seen that the present invention embodies in combination a series of tone-emitting elements, such as C, producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements, such as D, producing pedal effects, a series of tone ducts, 20, common to the elements of both of said series of toneemitting elements, and a selecting mechanism illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 arranged as hereinbefore set forth to bring any one or more of the elements of one of said series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication with the tone ducts, independently of every other element of both of said series. It is not altogether essential that the subprimary pneumatics G be employed. It is practicable to employ one primary pneumatic alone for each tone and to incorporate these primary pneumatics in the chest K as indicated in Fig. 9. In this figure, the valve, marked 150, operates precisely as has been described with reference to the pneumatic G, its operation being controlled by the forces imposed on the lower membrane, marked 151. An upper membrane, marked 152, together with a chamber 158, is'shown, but the latter membrane and chamber are functionless in this particular embodiment, arranged and described the parts with refer-' ence to the use of air at subnormal or less than atmospheric pressure in conjunction with air at normal or atmospheric pressure, yet this is merely exemplary as it will not be a departure from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the claims to so arrange and coordinate the parts that air of any suitably relatively different pressures may be employed. Having now described the invention what I believe to be new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, and what I therefore claim, 1s:- 1. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, two series of tone-emitting elements, a series of tone ducts common to the two series of elements and mechanism for selectively controlling communication of the tone ducts with the tone emitting elements, said mechanism including means for bringing any one or more of the elements of one series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other series of tone-emitting elements into communication with the corresponding tone ducts independently of every other of the elements of both of said series, whereby any one or more tones in either series may be sounded alone, or any one or more tones in one series may be sounded in combination with any one or more of the tones of the other series. 2. A record-contr0lled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a movable operating element, a series of tone ducts controlled thereby, two series of tone-emitting elements, to which said tone ducts are commonly related, a selective mechanism to bring any one or more of the elements of one of said series and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication with their correspondng common tone ducts independently of every other element of both of said series and means for controlling said selective mechanism from said operating element. 3. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of toneemitting elements producing manual eifects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal efiects, a series of control ducts common to the elements of each of the aforesaid series and a selecting mechanism to bring any one or more of the elements of one of said series of tone-emitting elements or any one or more of the elements of the other of said series of tone-emitting elements into communication with their corresponding tone ducts independently of every other element of both of said series whereby any one or more of said tone producing elements in one of said series may be sounded in combination with any one or more of the tone producing elements of the other of said series a. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a movable operating member, a plurality of tone-duets controlled thereby, a series of tone-emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, said tone ducts being common to both of said series of tone-emitting elements, a selective mechanism to bring any one or more of the elements of one of the series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication with the corresponding common tone ducts, independently of the remaining elements of both of said series and means for controlling said selective mechanism from said operating element. 5. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, two series of tone-emitting elements, a series of tone ducts common to the two series of elements, a selecting mechanism to bring any one or more of the elements of one of said series and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication with their corresponding tone ducts independently of every other element of both of said series, a control duct related to said seleetive mechanism and means for controlling the tone ducts and the control ducts. 6. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of toneemitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal efiects, a series of tone-ducts common to both of the aforesaid series of toneemitting elements, aselecting mechanism cooperatively related to the tone ducts and the tone-emitting elements and establishing communication between any one or more of the elements of one of the series of toneemitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other series of toneemitting elements and the common tone ducts independently of each and every remaining element of both of said series of tone-emitting elements, said selective mechanism comprising a manual control duct and a pedal control duct; and means for opening and closing the control ducts and the tone ducts. 7. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of toneemitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, a series of tone-ducts common to both of the aforesaid series of toneemitting elements, a selecting mechanism cooperatively related to the tone ducts and the tone-emitting elements and establishing communication between any one or more of the elements of one of the series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other series of tone-emitting elements and the common tone ducts independently of each and every remaining element of both of said series of tone-emitting elements, said selective mechanism comprising a manual control duct and a pedal control duct; and means for opening and closing the control ducts and the tone ducts, said selective mechanism including means for preventing the sounding of any given tone element in one series when the corresponding element in the other series is sounding at the time the first mentioned element tends to come into action. 8. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series oi. toneemitting elements producing manual elfects, a series of elements producing pedal effects, a series of tone-ducts common to the elements of each of said series, a movable controlling device for said tone ducts, and a series of pneumatic switches controlled by the controlling device and movable to connect any one or more of the elements of one of the series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series to the corresponding common tone ducts independently of every other element of both of said series of tone-emitting elements. 9. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of toneemitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, operating pneumatics for each of the elements of each series, a series oi. tone-ducts, each tone-duct being common to one element in each of the series of toneemitting elements, pneumatic switches the position of which controls the operating pneumatics, control ducts for said switches and a movable operating member which controls both the tone ducts and the control ducts. 10. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, two series of tone-emitting elements, a series of tone ducts common thereto, a control duct, select mg mechanism controlled by said control duct for bringing any one or more of the elements of one of the series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication with the tone ducts at one time independently of every other element of both of said series, and operating means for opening and closing the tone ducts and the control duct, said selecting mechanism being constructed to respond only to those tone ducts which are opened at the moment the control ducts are being closed. 11. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of tone-emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, a series of tone ducts each of which is common to an element in each of the aforesaid series of tone emitting elements, a pedal control duct, a manual control duct, a selecting mechanism cooperatively related to and controlled by the opening and closing of said control ducts and an operating member for opening and closing both the control ducts and the tone ducts, said selecting mechanism being arranged 'to respond only to the tone ducts which are opened as one of the control ducts is closed. 12. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of tone-emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, a series of tone ducts each of which is common to one element in each of the two series of tone-emitting elements, a selective mechanism embodying a series of primary control pneumatics, a series of pneumatic switches controlled by said primary pneumatics, and a series of operating pneumatics for the toneemitting elements controlled by said pneumatic switches. 13. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of tone emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects and a common selecting mechanism cooperatively related to said elements embodying a source of power and means for bringing any One or more of the elements of one of said series of tone-emitting elements and any one or more of the elements of the other of said series into communication With said source of power independently of every other element of both of said series. 14. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of tone-emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, a common selecting mechanism cooperatively related to said elements, tone ducts the opening of which determines which of the elements of a series shall sound and control ducts the condition of which determines which series shall sound. 15. A record-controlled musical instrument comprising, in combination, a series of tone-emitting elements producing manual effects, a series of tone-emitting elements producing pedal effects, a common selecting ity of series of tone-emitting elements, a series of operating pneumatics for each series of tone-emitting elements, a plurality of control pneumatics, and a series of pneumatic switches disposed between the control pneumatics and the operating pneumatics, said switches being controlled by said control pneumatics and in turn controlling said operating pneumatics. 17. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the toneduct and the respective operating pneumatics, pneumatically-operable means for opening or closing said connections, and means for variably controlling and applying the forces which operate the opening and closing means, the said controlling and applying means applying the pneumatic forces to the opening and closing means in such manner as to hold the opening and closing means against change of position while the duct is open. 18. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-pneumatics and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the tone-duct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connections including a tone pneumatic to which the tone duct is connected, pneumatically operable means between the tonepneumatic and respective operating pneumatics for opening or closing the ways between the same, and means for variably controlling and applying the forces which oper-,' ate the opening and closing means, the said controlling and applying means applying the pneumatic forces to the opening and closing means in such a manner as to hold the opening and closing means against change of position while the tone duct is open. 19. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of toneemitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the toneduct and the respective operating pneumatics, pneumatically-operable valves having membranes, said valves opening or closing said connections, and means whereby the forces which operate the membranes of said valves are variably controlled and applied, the said means being so correlated with the membranes that the valves may be moved under control thereof and when so moved the tendency on the opening of the tone duct will be to hold the valves against change of position while the duct is open. 20. In a record-controlled musical instrument, th combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the tone duct and the respective operating pneumatics, including a tone-pneumatic to which the tone-duct is connected, pneumaticallyoperable valves having membranes, said valves opening or closing the ways between the tonepneumatic and the respective operating pneumatics, and means whereby the forces which operate the membranes of said valves are variably controlled and applied, the said means being so correlated with the tone-pneumatic and membranes that the valves may be moved under control thereof and when so moved the tendency on the opening of the tone duct will be to hold the valves against change of position while the duct is open. 21. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of toneemitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the toneduct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connections having ports which respectively communicate with the operating v pneumatics, the connections also including a tone pneumatic between the ports and the tone-duct and each port being further in communication with a source of supply of air of different pressure from that'which flows therethrough between the tone pneumatic and the operating pneumatics, independently operable valves for opening and clos ing communication of the ports alternately with the tone pneumatic and with said source of supply of air of different pressure, pneumatically operable controllers and connections between the controllers and valves for variably applying the forces which operate the valves and holding the valves against change of position while the tone-duct is open. 22. In a record-controlled musical instru ment, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a'plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the toneduct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connections including a tone-pneumatic, a chamber in communication with the tone-pneumatic and having ports which communicate with the respective operating pneumatics, the ports being also arranged to have communication with a source of air supply, independently operable means for opening or closing communication of the ports with said chamber or said source of air supply, alternately, said means having pneumatically operable elements, and means for variably controlling and supplying the air forces to the pneumatically operable elements, the controlling and applying means for said forces being so correlated with said elements that the latter may be adjusted under control thereof and when so adjusted the tendency on the opening of the toneduct will be to maintain them against change of position while the duct is open. 23. In a record'controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics therefor respectively, of a series of tone ducts common to both series of operating pneumatics, and mechanism for selectively controlling the communication of the tone duets with the operating pneumatics, auto matically, the said mechanism including control ducts, a plurality of series of valves in the connections between the series of tone ducts and the respective series of operating pneumatics, every valve of either series being operable independently of every other valve of the same or different series to open or close the passages from the tone ducts to the operating pneumatics and means connected with the control ducts and operated under control thereof for operating said valves, and means for opening and closing the tone ducts and control ducts. 24. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of mechanism for operating any one or more of the operating pneumatics of either series alone or of both series in a multiplicity of combinations, at will, from a set of tone apertures common to both series of operating pneumatics, the said mechanism including a tracker having a series of tone apertures each of which is common to corresponding pneumatics of the series of operating pneumatics, the said tracker also having a plurality of control apertures, connections between the tone apertures and the series of operating pneumatics, said connections including valves, means connected with the control apertures for operating said valves, and a record having perforations to register with tone-apertures in the tracker and other perforations to register with the control apertures in said tracker. 25. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of mechanism for operating any one or more of the operating pneumatics of either series alone or of both series in a multiplicity of combinations, at will, from a set of apertures common to both series of operating pneumatics, the said mechanism including a tracker having a series of tone apertures each of which is common to corresponding pneumatics of the series of operating pneumatics, the said tracker also having a pair of control apertures, connections between the tone apertures and the series of operating pneumatics, means having connection with the control apertures and controlled by the opening and closing thereof for opening and closing the ways from the tone-apertures to the operating pneumatics, and a record having note perforations and control perforations, the note perforations registering with the tone apertures of the tracker and the control perforations registering with the control apertures of the tracker and being arranged with their rear ends substantially in line transversely of the music roll with the particular note apertures related to operating pneumatics which are to be coupled. 26. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics having connection therewith, of a series of tone ducts common to the plurality of series of operating pneumatics, connections between the tone ducts and the operating pneumatics, said connections including a series of pneumatic switches, each switch having pneumatically operable valves which respectively control communlcation of the switch with corresponding pneumatics of the series of operating pneumatics, said valves being so arranged that the connections to one series of operating pneumatics are normally open and the connections to the other series of operating pneumatics are normally closed, and means for moving said valves. 27. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics having connection therewith, of a series of tone ducts common to the series of operating pneumatics, connections between the tone ducts and the operating pneumatics, said connections including a series of pneumatic switches, each switch having pneumatically operable valves which con trol communication of a tone duct with corresponding pneumatics of the series of operating pneumatics, the series of pneumatic switches also having passages for airs of different pressures, one of said passages being common to the series of valves which control the passages to one series of operat ing pneumatics and another being common to the series of valves which control the passages to another series of operating pneu matics, and means for controlling the wind passages. 28. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of series of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of series of operating pneumatics having connection therewith, of a series of tone ducts common to the series of operating pneumatics, connections between the tone ducts and the operating pneumatics, said connections including a series of pneumatic switches, each switch having pneumatically operable valves which control communication of a tone duct with corresponding pneumatics of the series of operating pneumatics, the series of pneumatic switches also having passages for airs of different pres sures, one of said passage being common to the series of valves which control the passages to one series of operating pneumatics and another being common to the series of valves which control the passages to another series of operating pneumatics, and means for controlling the wind passages, the latter means including a pair of control ducts and control pneumatics having connection with said ducts and with said passages of the switches. 29. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of means for selectively operating the operating pneumatics comprising a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the tone-duct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connections including valves to open or close communication between the tone-duct and the respective operating pneumatics, and controllers for moving the valves independently of each other to cause the operation of either operating pneumatic alone, or of both together, at will, when the tone duct is opened. 80. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of mechanism for selectively operating the operating pneumatics, the said mechanism comprising a common tone duct, a tonepneumatic having connection with the duct, means between and connected with the tone pneumatic and respective operating pneumatics, forming passages for air of diflerent pressures, valves for said passages, and pneumatically operable controlling means for moving said valves automatically. 31. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, each operating pneumatic having a collapsible and expansible element and means through which fluid is supplied to or withdrawn from said element to expand it or cause it to collapse, said means including a valve for cont-rolling the fluid and a pressure-operated member for operating the valve, in combination with a tone duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the tone-duct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connections including valves, and controllers for moving the valves to cause the operation of either operating pneumatic alone or both together, at will, when the tone duct is opened. 32. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, connections between the tone duct and the respective operating pneumatics, said connection including a pneumatic switch having valves, and pneumatically operable controllers for automatically moving the valves of the pneumatic switch to cause the operation of either operating pneumatic alone, or both together, at will, when the tone-duct is opened. 33. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of toneemitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a common tone-duct, a tone-pneumatic having connection with the duct, a pneumatic switch having members for the operating pneumatics respectively, means connecting the pneumatic switch with the tone pneumatic, the switch member having ports which are arranged to have communication with the tone pneumatic and the atmosphere, alternately, and including valves for controlling such communication, and means for automatically moving the valves independently of each other. 34. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of means for selectively operating the operating pneumatics comprising a common tone duct, a tone pneumatic having a chamber and valved openings through which said chamber is supplied with air at different pressures, the tone pneumatic also having connection with the tone duct and including means whereby its valve is operated by the opening and closing of the tone-duct, valved switch members having connection with the respective operating pneumatics and with said chamber of the tone-pneumatic, and means for moving the valves of the switch members to establish or cut off communication of either or both operating pneumatics with the tone-pneumatic. 35. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, a tone-pneumatic having connection with the tone-duct and provided with a chamber for air of different pressures and a means for alternately opening said chamber to and closing it against the sources of air of different pressures, respectively, said means being controlled by the opening and closing of the tone duct, a switch having a chamber in communication with said chamber of the tone-pneumatic and provided with ports which have communication with the respective operating pneumatics and are so arranged that the latter will be alternately subjected to airs of different pressures one of which is from said chamber of the switch, and independently operable means for opening and closing said ports, said means including pneumatically operable elements and means whereby the forces which operate said elements are variably controlled and applied to move the opening and closing means and maintain them against change of position while a tone-duct is open. 36. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plu 'ality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, a tone-pneumatic having connection with the tone-duct and provided with a. chamber for air of different pressures and means for alternately opening said chamber to and closing it against the sources of air of different pressures, respectively, said means being controlled by the opening and closing of the tone duct, a switch having a chamber in communication with said chamber of the tonepneumatic and provided with ports which have com munication with the respective operating pneumatics and are so arranged that the latter will be alternately subjected to airs of different pressures one of which is from said chamber of the switch, the switch also havin g independently operable means for opening and closing said ports, said means including pneumatically operable elements, and control pneumatics for selectively controlling the forces which operate said means. 37. In a record-controlled musical instrument, the combination with a plurality of tone-emitting elements and a plurality of operating pneumatics therefor, respectively, of means for selectively operating the operating pneumatics comprising a tone-duct common to both operating pneumatics, 0p-

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