P. C. HEWITT.
VAPOR ELECTRIC APPARATUS. APPLICATION FILED OCT 23, 1915.
1 1 98,38 Patented Sept. 12, 1916.
a a IIWENTO/j Arm/Mr PETER COOPER HEWITT, OF RINGWOOD MANOR, NEW? YER/3133C ASSIGNOR Ti? CQOIER HEE'ITT ELECTRIC COINIPANY, OF HOBOKEN, NEW? JERSEY, A COPLPURATIQN 3F NE'W JERSEY.
VAPGE ELECTRIC APIAIELA US.
Original application filed February 20. 1902, Serial No. :34, "i1.
Renewed April 11, 19 34, Serial. 2J0. 1
Divided anti application filed April 3, 3.911. Serial No. 613.65 Divided and this origination m n Detober 23, 1915. Serial No. 57,406.
To (/71 whom 1'2 mag (2012mm lle it known that i'l'll-llt COUPE}! llnwrnr, a citizen of the llniteil States, aml resident of llingwooll lvlanon county of lassaie, State of New Jersey have invented certain new and useful improvements in Vapor Electric Apparatus, of which the following a specification. 7
In certain applications of the United States lllelllon the 5th (lay o'l April, 190i, and hearing respectively the Serial Nun hers Til-.48 and 54-3-85, i show anll :leserihe a method and apparatus relating lothe eniploylnentoi a 'lorin of gas or vapor electri lamp in, conneetion with a souree of poly phase alternating current, The (levies shown and llescriliell in these applications vis provitlml with three positive electrodes and a singlenegative electrorle, the positive electrolles being respectively connected to the terminals of a source oi? three-plume alternating current, while, the negative electrode is connected to the neutral point of the. source.
In the apparatus (liselosell in the applica tions referred to, a positive electrode is suppliell for each phase of the polyphase alternating; current, the several electrodes being successively llll-l'WlllCHl into the lamp circuit coineiilently with the alternations of the current. In the description forming: part of the applications, it is pointed out that at the negative electrode there exists 2 11 the current into a three-phase alteri'iating current, applying the three-phase current to the lamp after such trans" ination, or a polyphase current in 'ilfilliintils a three-phase 2. wave c. 7
In operatin the lamp continuously, i
necessary that the current Sllfillld always pass through the lamp in the SillfifijllllC t on. Otherwise, the negative electrode, resistance referred to above would prevent the of a reverse current VVit-h the or (hoary tuophaee current, there are interi which no elem tro-inotivelorce iznpief eel in a given clirecon. in order, therefore, to be able to utilize such a two; has-e current. it is necessary to tran he onent into a poly phase current such as will 'ierniit a eoiiru nous low in the some direction. anti for illlh purpose the thie -phase curreir it seems Ll) he lblilfillzlliy a ted. 5y means of the device illustrated herein, I pro -idle arectiller for the threephase current (Whether nsell tor l1 ghting purposes or not), whereby the passage of the current is restricted to one direction tl'irougli the rectifying device,
and the flow of the current in the line leading in the negative electrode is also in one the subject of the present invent-ion, show- 111}; also means tor translornnng the can shows a l. 1 in tile illustrateo.
rent into electric l lit: an-zl rectiner capable of u.
system without the prolliwtion of light for v illuminating" purposes.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the (lira-living 10 is a suitable source of two-phase alternating electric currents, and the primaries of two-phase, electric transformers supplied by the saitl source. The seconilaries of the said transformers are shown at 32-3, 33, and these, secondaries constitute a source of suppi y the pri: arias Q1151, 42 1-,
t glass or oto The respective positive ElGCtljOClGS are shown at :2 2 eudz, While the negative electrode @coudm'ies, 5, 55 55, arranged in star The inclosiug chumbeu oi the lamp 1, the some being composed of e1 suitable transparent material.
appears at 5, being here shown as consisting essentially of. aosmall body of mercury. The positive electrodes 2, 2 and 2, ere resusctively connected by meauslof wires,-12', 13 and 1%, with the tenuinuls of the trans forms-i. secondaries, 55, 55, 55, and the mega tive electrode is joined by 21 Wire to the neutral point 58. of the transformer. For the purpose of sti'ting the lamp, ll usually surround the portion of the lump adjacent to the negative electrode with a conducting hand, 9, connected by :1 Wire- 16., with either of the positive leading-in Wires 7, 72/5, or I may connect it to earth by any suitable means, This aids in starting the lamp.
In order to provide o starting impulse of higher potential than that on which the lamp is to be operated "(such a starting in;- pulse having been found convenient for causing the initial operation. of the lamp), I n'ovicle a shunt, 21, around the lmupbe tween the negative side 15, and either, one of. the positive Wires 1:2 13 or M, and include in the shunt the resistance *23 and a switch in the present instance I eonmet the shunt across loot eu the WlKBS 14: and 15, In the Wire 1:5 illClllCi-B coil, and a switch 26.
T will be no do o.
jug fronioue of the positive ies to the other H1 the lamp illufied 9 drewings, since each positive is u relation to each of the other trodes, and so long as the ucgeti at the opposite end of-tlie l 1 down by the initial or stiu the current will find less zesistouce in passing tlu'ougli the length of the tube than. it WOJlfi in attempting to pass Iron] one positive electrode to either of the others.
The switch 26 being ClOSECl 1t lsouly 132GB"- sazy 111 o iQ-Z to start the lamp that the described mt should be closed J s 2 1 0 v 4- in 045, n I lll.k"ll1lAL JL \J url-LL; u... unfit i den rupture oftlie circuit and thus produce the quick impulse described,
In Fig 2, I show the container 1 of globw lot or bulbous form the relations being such that under ordinary conditions no light will developed in the gases or VklPOlS lHClUSfil l Within. the container. llitli structure such 3 plicable to icctiiiers of the usual oi u vcrv broken the electrodes and. a common negutiw application Serial Number 594,871. filed Folii'uary th, 1902, renewed April 11th, 190i, SeriulNumber 202,669.
I am aware. of the issuance to myself of United States Patent No. 1,156,227, the application for which was filed on the 14th of August, 1907'; (line of the objects sought in the invention set forth in said potent WAS that of reducing uuiterizilly below foul-teen volts the normal glrop in potential hetvvceii a positive electiode and a cathode 0; negative lectrocle a vapor rectifier. To accomplish the result aimed at, I located and supported the positive electrode Within the region in. which the negative electrode component of the total full of potential occurs. (ltlierwise expressed, the positive electrode was located Within the dark space adjacent to the "negative electrode or cathode. The invention. of the present application is upcommou type, wherein the normal drop of potential between. electrodes of opposite po-- lurity ranges somewhere from about L; to-
about 20 volts. The positive electrode in this case l outside the critical region which is l "sited the negative clecti-ode and the region eojoceut to it, of approximately the some potential. In other .vonle; the positiveelectrode lies outside the socalled dark space.
I claim invention: 7
1. A rectifier for alternating electric cuu rent comprising an evacuated clmuuhezposielectrodeoi cathode therein, the positive electrodes being located. outside the (lurk space adjacent to the cathode and the diameter of across-section of the container through the cond'ucti g" path being greetei' than the een the positive and negative elec- A .tetilier for alternating electric cur comprising an evacuated cluunlier, a. e a d e :cegz'itive electrode 01 cathode loco ted to the iieiug urezitir 1v tuuce b TWGQR the gjositivc electrodes 3. A vapor electric device cou'igiisiug an evacuated chamber and electrodes of 0; posite polarity herein, the positi olm'itv constituent being outside the dark space ml.- jucent to the cathode and the (lizin'ietci of a, close-section. of the chein'ocz' tlu'ough the 3rd, 1911, which, in turn, is a division. oflnv.
- electrode being located outside the region in which the negative electrodecomponent of a the total fall of potential occurs, and the distance between the electrodes being less than the diameter of a cross-section of the container through the conducting path.
5. An electric apparatus comprising an evacuated container, positive electrodes and a negative electrode or cathode therein, the
region in which the negative electrode comv ponent of the total fall of potential occurs,
and the distancebetween the electrodes being less than the diameter of a crosssection of the container through the conducting path.
Signed at New York in the county of New York and State of New York this 20th day of October A. D. 1915.
. PETER COOPER HEWITT.