Antiglare means for headlights.

Abstract

Claims

A. c. DAVIS & 0. L. PRIMROSE. ANTIGLARE MEANS FOR HEADL|GHTS- APPLICATION FILED OCT. 9. l9lfi. Patented Feb. 27,1917.- ATTO R N EY ran s'ra'rns rarun'r orrioa- ALLAN CONRADT DA VIS AND DONALD LLOYD PRIMROSE, 01E BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. ANTIGLARE MEANS FOR HEADLIGHTS. To all whom it may concern: 1 DONALD L. PRIMROSE, citizens of the United States, residing at Baltimore, State of Maryland, have invented anew and useful Antiglare Means for "Headlights, of which the following is a specification. ' This invention has reference to anti-glare means for headlights, and especially headlights as used for automobiles, and its object is to provide means which may be initially built into headlights or may be applied to already installed headlights, whereby the glare of a high power headlight is completely eliminated so far as other persons toward which the automobile is traveling are concerned, but which will have no noticeable effect with respect to the lighting of the roadway ahead of the automobile. High power headlights for automobiles are desirable, especially in the case of otherwise unlighted roads, in order that the automobilist may be apprised of conditions sulficiently far in advance to avoid any dangers which may be present. While such high power headlights are highly advantageous and to an extent necessary in giving ample light ahead, the glare produced by such high power headlights as usually constructed is a distinct menace. to other automobilists or drivers ofvehicles approaching thevehicle with such high power headlights. Variousdevices have been proposed for eliminating the glare, some by diffusion and others by devices which either shut off a considerable portion of the light, or direct it immediately in front and but a short distance in advance of the automobile, or temporarily substitute a low power lamp for ahigh power lamp. All these schemes have the, disadvantage of materially cuttingdown the illumination, especially the illumination far enough in; advance of the automobile to effectively protect the automobilist. In accordance with the present invention the power of the headlight is utilized at all times and with no sensible loss, the illumination of the roadway ahead of the vehicle for the usual distance obtainable with the ordinary high power headlight being present, but to an approaching automobilist the intensity of the light automatically diminishes untilv the headlight apparently goes out, except for the illumination vof the roadway. The blinding glare so objectionable Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Feb. 27, 1917. Application filed October 9, 1916. Serial No. 124,568. with ordinary high power headlights is entirely obliterated and no difiiculty is experienced in avoiding on-coming automobiles or in the visible illumination of the roadway alongside of and beyond the oncoming automobile equipped with the pres ent invention. a I v Automobile' headlights are located on the automobile above the roadway by a distance considerably less than the height of the eyes of a pedestrian walking on the same road-. way, while the line of vision of a person seated in an automobile is still higher. However, the beam of light emitted by the ordinary automobile headlight of-parabolic character is of great intensity to a far greaterheight than the line of vision of either a pedestrian or the occupant of a vehicle. . By the present invention-there is provided at the light emitting end. of the headlight a light-controlling means in constantly fixed relation to the headlight, automatically diverting all rays which would rise'to the height of the line of vision of on-coming persons so that these rays are so directed as to produce no visible glare and still are utilized for illuminating the roadway far in advance of the automobile equipped with the invention. 1 To accomplish this the light emitting end of the headlight is provided with a series of parallel laminae of very thin cross-section extending transversely of the height of the headlight, and so arranged that no light, or at least no glare-producing light, can leave the headlight structure at a height sufficient to be seen by an on-coming observer, whether a pedestrian or an occupant of a vehicle.- This requires a peculiar arrange ment of the laminae with-relation to each other to overcome thepossibility of stray glare-producing beams issuing from the headlight at such an angle as to reach the eyes of the on-coming observer. The struc the accompanying. drawings forming part of thisspecification, with the further understanding that while-the drawings show a the showing of the drawings, but may. bechanged and modified so long as such j changes and modifications come within th .cially adaptedv to headlights withv d 'flectors. x scope ofthe appended claims. In the drawings Flgurejl is. a vertical section through a headlight equipped. with the invention and consideredasin the usual installed position.- Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the headlight light casing, for a distance about equal to "the wideningspacing below the central zone, ,shown in 1; I H Fig. 3is'a detail cross-section of a portion ofthe supporting ring and one of the lamir nae employed in the headlight construction. Fig. 4c is'asection similar to Fig. 1 but. showing the supporting ring and laminae only, and illustrating a construction espellteferri'ng to the drawings there is shown a shell}v 1 and parabolic reflector2'of a prov alenttform of headlight equipped with a 7 and mounted in this ring is a series of lami high power electric lamp 3, such high power glamp's being customarily gas filled lamps. 1 ' The dimmingor light-controlling structure' comprises a "ring 4 which may beof channel form for strength and lightness,- "H nae 5 extending-crosswise or in chord rela tion to the ring, the laminae being all paral-. lel or'substantially parallel one to the other. The laminae are conveniently made of thin sheet metal, say, of about the gage of ordinary tin plate. One face of each strip -5.' of sheet metal may be made highly reflecting as by polishing or" by plating with some metal. capable of taking high polish, and, therefore, be highly" reflective, of which metal nickel may be -taken as an'example. ' face in the installed position'ofthestruc-g One'face of the laminze strip is made dull, this being the face constituting the upper ture, the lower face of the v laminae strip being the reflecting face. It is" desirable that the light-controlling structure be of as little depth-as maybe ward the eye of the observer or any rising beamsl of light coming from the reflector needed to make the structure effective, and this depth may be relatively smalhby a i proper distribution of the laminae in an up and down direction: in the installed position of the parts. Where the laminae are directly in front of the electriclight bulb, they are placed quite close together and then being or non-reflecting, in any suitable manner, I e2 ttent,'the light which may strike such surtarmac creased with a corresponding lessening in the number of laminae, so that in an actual structure found to operate successfully the spacing above the lamp zone increased by one-fourth inch, three-eighths inch and one half inch, respectively, the widest spacing adjacent to the topv of the headlight body 7 Below thecentral zone where the spacing -is narrowest. the laminae are progressively spaced farther and farther apart, which in the actual structure referred to was one- .fourth inch', .then three-eighths, inch, and from such point to the bottom of the headthe' spacing of the laminae returned to about that of the central zone, namely, one-eighth of an inch. It is to be understood that the particular spacing referred to is. not obligatory and 'may vary, such variation usually requiring a corresponding change in thewldth of the middle of thelamp and for a distance on opposite sides-of the middle of the lamp about equal .to the diametric height of the lamp bulb, the close spacing of the laminae strips results in the projection of beams of light in practically horizontal planes. Any material divergence from such horizontal planes results in the 'strikingof the beams of light on the under polished surfaces of the strips and the deflection of such beams of light toward the surface of the roadway, contributing to the illumination thereof and, of course, being entirely out of the direct line of visionof an approaching observer, or one toward which the automobile is appreaching, for the. line of vision of the observer-is higher'than the headlight. Since the upper surfaces ofthe laminae are dull, that is, are non-reflecting to any noticeable meet the reflecting under surfaces oi the lamina at suchangles as to be reflected toward the roadbed and not toward the eye of the observer. Any beams of light coming from the reflector and at angles which would be liable to be again reflected toward the eye of the observer from the laminae strike the dull surfaces thereof and so are reduced to a harmless point. I The laminae are increasingly spaced apart in more or. less regular progression from th middle zone toward the top of the headlight ahead, or in a downward direction due to reflection from the under faces of the laminae. The increasing angle of divergence permits a like increase in the spacing apart and a like decrease in the number of laminae frhm the central zone upwardly, thus giving a more and more free escape for the light toward the top of the headlight without, however, a chance of the beams other than substantially horizontal beams issuing from the headlight, it bein understood, of course, that the installed hegdlight has its longitudinal axis substantially horizontal. The reflectors of automobile headlights are ostensibly parabolic reflectors, but in fact their form is often quite far removed from that of a true parabola. The laminae located-above the central zone of the headlight prevent the escape of any rising rays of light, but do not prevent the escape of many rays of light directed down wardly. This, however, is not objectionable, for it is really advantageous, since such rays of light help to illuminate the roadway without any possibility of their producing observable glares. However, the light reflected from the bottom portion of the headlight reflector-are in large part rising rays of light at a small angle to the horizontal, but with an angle suflicient to find direct escape through widened spacing of the laminae such as is employed at the top portion of the headlight front. EX erience has shown that if the same spacing e employed at the bottom of the headlight front as is employed at the top, a very obtrusive glare is produced, and hence the laminae in the bottom portion at the front of the headlight are, brought closer together than they are imme: diately below the central zone, so that the slightly rising rays of light coming from the headlight reflector are unable to escape directly from the front of the headlight and engage either the under reflecting surfaces of the laminae to be redirected toward the roadbed, or their glare producing qualities are obliterated by the dull upper surfaces of the laminae. The laminae strips are so disposed both in spacing and width that some portion interposes in the path of the glare producing, rays, whereby such rays are either diverted toward the roadbed or their glare producing characteristics are obliterated. The interference of the device with the illuminating qualities of the headlight is so small as to be unapparent to the ordinary observer, wherefore there is .no sensible difference so far as the illumination ahead or an exactly similar invention omitted. headlight, with the The'eifect upon an observer in front the automobile is, however, very noticeable. If the approaching automobile be' so. far away from the observer, say, a thousand or more feet, that the angle between the emitted light and the horiontal is almost inappreciable, glare will be observed, but before the automobile can approach the observer close enough for the glare to' be obtrusive the laminae. begin to interpose becauseof the increasing angleto the horizontal of the emitted raysof light whichv might reach the eye of the observer," the glare quickly disappears, and so far as the observer is concerned the headlights appear togo'out and give nomore light and even less light to the eyes of the observer than appears when small lamps are substituted for the. high power lamps employed in powerful headlights. However, the roadway infront of the approaching automobile is as well illuminated as before and theapproaching automobile y: is quite visible from light reflected toward it from thejroadway, while-the eye s v ofthe. observer are notgblinded by any brilliant lights. If the observer be in an automobile equipped withthe present invention the] strong, road illumination permits the ob; server to seeclearly ast the 'on-coming autos; mobile whereby accidents of-vany kind need notoccur. .c e It is apparent that the location of opaque devices in the light emitting end of the headlight cutsoff some of, the light, the amount of such cutoff light corresponding to the cross-sectional area of theopaque ma-MI I terial in a plane perpendicular to the direc-' tion of the' emitted rays. For this reason the laminae are made very thin and the re fleeting qualities of the laminae are utilized. f Under these circumstances it becomes neces sary to-space the laminae apartin an up and down direction about inaccor-dance with the varying angles of the emitted rays of light'{ to the horizontal, this being especially the case above the horizontal diametric plane of." the headlight; The same rule follows below, such horizontal centralplane except-that for the zone close to the bottom of the headlight the narrow spacing of the centralzone must be resorted to, thisv being in a measure due to the departure of commercial forms of parabolic reflectors from true parabolic form and the improper focusing of the lamp. Because of the very small change in angle within a zone about equal to the diameter of the lamp bulb the spacing of the laminae at the central zone is close and with the great majority of comparatively shallow headlights a spacing approximating that stated is found to beparticularly efiicient. On either side, that i's, feither immediately above or immediately below the central zone & in close spacing, the spacing of the laminae may increase progressively about in proportion to the increasing angular relation of the emitted rays to the central horizontal plane of the headlight. Above the central zone the spacing may progressively increase to the top of the headlight, while at the lower portion of the headlight front the spacing returns to approximately that required for the central zone. With deep reflectors the same general spacing of the laminae answers, but it is found that the width of the laminae must be greater at the central zone than near the top of the headlight front with such width increasing progressively to a central point, then decreasing in like progression below the central point throughout the zone of increasing spacing of the laminae and then Where the spacing returns to that of the central zone the width of the laminae must again progressively increase. -In Figs. 1 and 2 there is shown a central zone 6 where the minimum spacing occurs and another zone 7 above the zone 6 where the spacing may progressively increase until the top of the headlight frontis reached. This progressive increase need not be precisely regular, but for convenience the progress may be by sections. in the space 9 in Figs. 1 and 2 thelaminae may be spaced-apart by a distance about twice that of the spacing in the zone 6. In the section 10 of Figs. 1 and 2 the spacing may be three times that of the zone 6 and in the section 11 of Figs. 1 and 2 the spacing may be four times that of the zone 6. Below the zone 6 there are sections 12 and 13 corresponding in spacing to the sections 9 and 10, while in the lowermost section 14 which may be approximately equal to the combined sections 12 and 13, the spacing returns to that of the zone 6. In Fig. 4 the same general arrangement as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 so far as spacing is concerned, occurs, but from and including the upper limits of the section 9, through the zone 6 and through the sections 12 and 13 the width of the laminae gradually increases to the mid point of the light-con trolling device indicated at 15, and then gradually decreases until in the section 13 the width is about the same as in the sections 10 and 11. In the section 14, however, the width of the sections gradually increases toward the bottom of the headlight. What is claimed is 1. Anti-glare means for headlights of vehicles and the like, comprising a series of thin plates arranged horizontally in the light emitting end of the headlight with respect to the installed position of the headlight,the plates being spaced apart in the direction of the height ,of the headlight with those plates opposite the light giving element of For instance, withting the headlight and at the lower ortion of the light emitting opening relatively close together, and the remainder of the plates on both sides of the plates in line with the light giving element increasing in spacing in a direction away from the horizontal central zone of the headlight. spacing between the plates being least in a central zone opposite the light giving element of the headlight and at the bottom portion of the headlight, and the spacing increasing between those plates from the central zone to the top of the headlight and from the central zone for a portion of the distance toward the bottom of the headlight. 3. Means for preventing glare in headlights of automobiles and the like, comprising a series of substantially parallel thin plates arranged horizontally with respect to the installed position of the headlight, said platesbeing spaced apart by distances to prevent direct view of any brilliantly illuminated portion of the headlight by an observer having the line of vision higher than the top of the headlight when the latter is directing the light rays horizontally, the spacing between the plates being least in a central zone opposite the light giving ele- -ment of the headlight and at the bottom portion of the headlight, and the spacing increasing between those plates from the central zone to the top of the headlight and from the central zone for aportion of the distance toward the bottom of the headlight, the increase in spacing of the plates being approximately in accordance with the increase in angle to the horizontal of the rays ordinarily directed toward the eye of the ob server from the source of illumination and u from the reflector within the headlight. 4. Means for preventing glare in automcbile and other headlights comprising a ring-like member adapted to the light emitend of the headlight. and a series of substantially parallel plates carried by the ring, said plates varying in spacing and being of a width to prevent direct vision of the source of light or of glare producing portions of the headlight reflector by an observer having the eyes higher than the headlight with the latter substantially horizontal, the plates being spaced apart in the direction of the height of the installed headlight to diflerent extents progressively increasing above the central portion of the headlight toward the top thereof. I 5., Means for preventing glare in auto- I mobile and other headlights comprising a ring-like member adapted to'the light emitting end of the headlight, and a series of substantially parallel plates carried by the ring, said plates varying in'spacing'and being of a width to prevent direct vision of the source, of light or of glare producing portions of the headlight reflector by an observer having the eyes higher than the headlight with thelatter substantially horizontal, the plates beingspaced apart in the direction of the height 'of the installed headlight to different extents progressively increasing above the central portion of the plates extending across the ring in substantially chord relation thereto, said plates being spaced apart to varying extents, with the spacing close at the central portion of the series and at one end thereof, and increasing from the central ortion, the spacmg gradually widening om the central portion to that end of the series remote from v the first-named end. 7..An anti-glare attachment for headlights of automobilesan'd'other structures, comprising a ring adapted to be lodged in the light emitting end of the headlight with said ring provided with a series of parallel plates extending across the ring in substantially chord relation thereto, said plates being spaced apart tovarying extents, with I the spacing close at the central portion of the series and atone. end thereof, and increasing from the central ortion,'the spacing gradually widening om the central portion to that end of the series remote from the first-named end, said plates having the' surface constituting the under'surface in the installed position'of the'device highly reflective and the opposite surface dul In testimony, that we claim the foregoing as our own, we have hereto afiixed our signatures in the presence oftwo witnesses, ALLAN OONRADT DAVIS. DONALD LLOYD PRIMROSE. \Vitnesses: ' J MILTON DAvIs, vCHAs. Sunnwoon Lone.

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