U. S. JENKINS- METHOD OF OBTAINING GASOLENE AND OTHER LIGHT-OILS FROM HEAVIER HYDROCARBONS.
APPLICATION FILED JULY I3. 1916.
Patented M01915, 1917.
2 SHEEIS SHEET I.
000000oo 0o0a0 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 U. S. JENKINS. METHOD-0F OBTAINING GASOLENE AND OTHER LIGHT OILS FROM HEAVIER HYDROCARBONS.
APPLlCATlON FILED JULY 13. I916- Patented May15, 1917.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
ooooooooo -erarns Parana canton.
UIJYSSES S. JENKINS, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO
JENKINS PETROLEUM PROCESS COMPANY, OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, A COR- PORA'IION OF WISCONSIN.
METHOD 01E OBTAINING GASOLENE AND OTHER LIGHT OILS FROM HEAVIER HYDRO- CARBONS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Pateimted May 15, 1917.
Application filedJuly '13, 1916. Serial No. 108,983.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ULYssEs S. JENKINS, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in-the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of Obtaining Gasolene and other Light Oils from Heavier Hydrocarbons, of which the following is the specification. V
- This invention is for a method and apparatus for treating heavier hydrocarbons such as petroleum oils, and particularly a method and apparatuswhereby a condensable, light oil may be obtained from petroleum and its by-products.
It is an object of my invention to provide a method for treating heavier hydrocarbons whereby they may be transformed with a minimum of waste through the production of permanent gases or of carbon, into gasolene and other condensable light by-products, it being entirely unnecessary to empty and refill stills or the like to treat separate charges of the-petroleum oil, the process being continuous from beginning to end, so that the heavier hydrocarbons may flowcontinuously through pipes from the source of supply to the apparatus in which its treatment is carried out and a substantially equal quantity of light, condensable oil, such as gasolene, will flow continuously from that apparatus. V
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus whereby the conversion of heavier hydrocarbons may be carried out and in which circulation is so controlled and efiected that deposit of carbon will be reduced to a negligible amount.
Other features of novelty, advantages and capabilities will become apparent from the detailed description of the accompanying drawings, in which I have illustrated a device embodying one form of my invention, and one which can be used for carrying out my new and improved method, but the construction there shown is to be understood as illustrative only and not defining the limits of my invention.
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of apparatus designed for carrying out my improved method. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the course of treatment of the heavier hydrocarbons. Fig. 3 is an end elevation ofa positive circulatory apparais a vertical sectional view of the controller for maintaining a constant level in the boiler, and Fig. 7 is a modification of a device em bodying my invention.
In the drawings, the heavier hydrocarbon is pumped from the sourceof its supply through the feed pipe 1, in which is the check valve 2, control valve 2, andthrough the inlet pipe 3 terminating in a downwardly directed portion it inside the still. The still comprises a strongly reinforced tank or barrel 4, having depending legs 5 and 6, connected by a series of tubes 7, which slope upward as shown.
The rear or lower leg of the boiler com prises an enlarged chamber 5, which is con nected to the barrel 4: by a circular passageway 8, in which is mounted a propeller 9 upon the shaft 10, having a. bearing at its lower end upon the spider construction 11, passing through the spider 12 and passing out through the barrel through stufiing box 13, and equipped at its top with a bevel gear 1l,'in mesh with which is a bevel gear 15 upon a power shaft 16. the bevel gears 14 and 15 being preferably incased in the housing 17.
Below the still, comprising the barrel 4, legs 5 and 6 and tubes 7, supporting and inclosing this construction, is a fire box. comprising grates 18, fuel inlet passage 19, ash pit 20, fire box 21, the fire being confined at its rear by the bafile 2:2, so that the prod nets of combustion sweep upwardly and backwardly along around the tubes, being",
directed downwardly by the bafile 23 and then permitted to whirl up again at the rear of the device, out around the barrel and through the flue '23. By this means a uniform, graduated degree of heat is maintained throughout a substantial portion of the length of the tubes 7, which serves to efiiciently heat the liquid flowing through these tubes.
1 From the description so far given, it will beunderstood that the supply of heavier hydrocarbons flowing in through feed pipe 1, controlled by valve 2, and being directed behind the propeller 9 is mechanically forced or pumped downwardly in leg 5 and then upwardly through the tubes 7, and through the leg 6 and into the barrel 4. This positive driving or pumping of the fluid causes a controlled and rapid circulation of the entire liquid contents of the still around or -back through the barrel 4, down leg 5, up
through the barrel tubes, through leg 6 and back into the barrel again.
It isto be particularly noted that the leg 6 is made larger than the leg 5, the purpose of this being to accommodate the expansion of liquid, which takes place in the tubes 7, particularly at or near their upper ends, and to prevent the possibility of a flare back, which is apt to occur if the enlarged and ebullient volume of hotter fluids must be confined in a leg of the same size as that which holds the more condensed and nonebullient fluid, 2'. 0., the leg which precedes the tubes. By the provision of enlarged leg (3, as well as by the mechanically forced rapid circulation induced by the propeller 9, this flaring back of gases and vapors int the lower leg 5 is prevented.
I maintain the liquid level in my apparatus constant. This is done by means of a level indicator and controller 24, (see Fig. 6) comprising a bracket 25, to which is pivoted at the level point 26, a float 27 having contacting arms 27', the apparatus being so constructed that if the float 27 rises, one of the arms 27 will be rocked backwardly to close a pair of contacts 28, whereas if the float falls, the other arm 27 will be rocked in the opposite direction to bridge a pair of "contacts 29. The level controller is in open communication with the barrel 4 by the hollow supporting tubes 29 and is provided with a glass face, as shown. By causing the bridging of one pair of contacts to flash a red light, while the bridging of the other pair flashes a blue light, or by direct electrical control thereby of the feed valve 2, or by other means well known in the art, I maintain the level in the barrel at,
a constant point, the form of level indicator being entirely immaterial, any efficient form being equally well employed.
Suspended from the top of the barrel 4 is a gas and vapor collector, comprising a large, fiat hollow container 30, imperforate at its bottom and sides but having a perforated top 31, the interior being in communication with the pipe 32, which is telescopically connected to the pipe 32, leading out of the barrel 4 through the adjustable pressure relief valve 33, such valves being well known in the art, and no detailed showing thereof being necessary. 'From the pressure relief valve the gases and vapors flow through the pipe 34 to the expansion chamber 35 and thence through the pressure relief valve 36 and pipe 37 to a condenser 38, from which gasolene and other .light by-products may be drawn. It is particularly to be noted that the collector 30 is vapors collect below them, so that the aversuspended low in the barrel 4, quite near to the level of the liquid in thebarrel 4. The gas and vapors collector or container 30 is adapted to be moved upwardly or downwardly so as to take off gases and vapors of diflerent densities as desired. Toefiect this adjustment, the pipe 32 is rigidly connected at one end to the gas and vapor collector'30 and its opposite end passes through the journal in the arm 32 -and is provided at its extreme end with an outwardly extending flange adapted to rest on the arm 32 so as to move upwardly therewith. For raising and lowering the arm 32 and gas collector 30, I provide a pair of, rods 32*, which extend upwardly through stufiing boxes 32 and thence upwardly through openings in the supporting arms 32 which arms are provided with set screws 32. From this it will be seen that by merely unscrewing the set screws and grasping the handles of the rods 32", the gas and vapor collector may be raised or lowered as desired, and after belng moved to the deslred position there held by tightening the set screws.
In operation, the liquid contents of the still are rapidly circulated around through thebarrel, depending legs and tubes of the apparatus while a brisk fire is maintained on the grate 18. The result will be the release of gaseous and vaporous products and the generation of pressure in the apparatus, evolved gases and'vapors collecting in the space abovethe constant liquid level in the barrel 4, wherein they will tend to arrange 100 themselves at least temporarily according to their densities-that is to say, the lighter gases and vapors will take position near the top of the barrel 4 and the heavier gases and age density of the gases and vapors at different levels will be different. The-temperature of the reaction may, of course, be controlled by controlling the fire in the fire box. The pressure in the apparatus is controlled by the adjustable pressure relief valve 33, which is set to maintain the pressure in the apparatus at a point which, in combination with the temperature and the time of treat ment, will result in the most eflicient transformation and conversion of the heavier hydrocarbons being treated into the desired product. The evolved gases and vapors under whatever pressure the pressure relief valve 33 is set for, are selectively tapped means of the gas and vapor collector 31, which may be set at any level in the barrel 4 to take off relatively heavier or lighter gaseous and vaporous products as desired, and which would tend to increase the proportion of permanent gases such as hydroporous products such as gasolene. lBy controlling pressure, temperature and rate of circulation in the apparatus, the conditions required for the complete transformation of trolled temperature, and pressure, will take place continuously in the still, new heavier hydrocarbons being supplied as required through feed pipe 1 to 'maintain aconstant.
liquid level in the barrel 4, as that which preceded it is transformed into'ligh't oil. In actual operation; the entire process occurs smoothly and quietly, the oil flowing rapidly. around and around through the apparatus, and condensable gases and vapors continuously flowing off through the collector 30.
The gases and vapors passing through the pipe 34 are permitted to expand against a low pressure of say, for instance, ten pounds, controlled by the pressure relief. valve 36,
in the expansion chamber 35, and are thus effectively reduced in temperature, after which they are passed through condensers and liquefied in a common and well known manner.
An important feature of the invention is the mechanical circulation of the product through the tubes 7. By means of this mechanical circulation, the deposit of'carbon in these tubes is rendered practically impossible. This deposit, which is unavoidable and constitutes a very serious and expensive trouble in the operation of petroleum stills heretofore made, is caused by the fact that the liquid cannot be made to pass rapidly enough through the heated tubes, and passing slowly over these hot carbon.
tubes, it is cracked too fine, with the resulting release of a large proportion of permanent gas and the resulting deposit of By means of the positive circulatory system, the liquid may be made to circulate at any desired speed, absolutely preventing its being suddenly heated or over-heated at any point, no matter how hot the fire may be, which practically prevents the deposit of carbon.
In Fig. 7 I have shown a modification in which I provide a' shield-40 between the fire and the barrel 4 so that the entire heating must be eifected by means of the tubes 7. In this modification the space underneath the tubes is filled up solid as shown at 41. The flames, passing down aroundthe tubes, escape throu h fiues 42, surrounding butseparated from the barrel. This method of treatment may sometimes be preferable.
Having now described my invention, I claim 2-- 1. The method of obtaining light oil from heavier hydrocarbons which consists in heating said heavier hydrocarbons in a still, maintaining pressure in said still, permitting gases and vapors of greater average density than that of the lowest produced in said still, to escape at selective points below the top of the chamber, subsequently condensing said vapors and forcing fresh heavier hydrocarbons into said still to make up for that transformed into said vapors.
2. The method of obtaining light oil from heavier hydrocarbons which consists in forcingheavier hydrocarbons into a still, heating said heavier hydrocarbons in the still whereby the same will be vaporized and gasified and the vapors will arrange themselves temporarily according to their densities, tapping said gases'and vapors at a point where a comparatively large proportion of condensable gases and vapors is found by pressure relief means adapted to maintain the pressure in the still at a point conducive to the most complete conversion of the heavier hydrocarbons into a light oil.
3. The method of obtaining gasolene and other light oils from heavier hydrocarbons consisting in pumping the hydrocarbons into a still, forcing the same through heated tubes inclined upwardly from the receiving to the delivery end thereof, and through a circulating chamber connecting the receiving and delivery ends of the tubes whereby the entire liquid contents of the still will be in constant circulation through the tubes and chamber and the vapors and gases will constantly be evolved from the liquid, then taking the vapors thus generated from a level above the liquid most conducive to a complete removal of the condensable vapors and below the top of the chamber, substan- In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name to this specification in the presence of two witnesses.
ULYSSES S. JENKINS. Witnesses:
A.- G. MAGUIRE, W. C. BEACH.